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LIBRARY 



^NSSACtf^^^^ 




1895 



JOHN PORY'S LOST DESCRIPTION 
OF PLYMOUTH COLONY 

TOGETHER WITH CONTEMPORARY 

ACCOUNTS OF ENGLISH COLONIZATION 

ELSEWHERE IN NEW ENGLAND 

AND IN THE BERMUDAS 



JOHN PORY'S LOST DESCRIPTION 

PLYMOUTH 

Colony in the Earliest Days of the 
Pilgrim Fathers 



Together with contemporary accounts of English Colo- 
nization elsewhere in New England and in the Bermudas 



Edited with, an Introduction and Notes by 
CHAMPLIN BURRAGE, B.Litt, [Oxon) 
sometime Librarian of Manchester College, Oxford; ^ 
of The John Carter Brown Library, Brown University 




boston and new YORK 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 
1918 



COPYRIGHT, I918, BY CHAMPLIN BURRAGE 
All Rights Reserved 



THREE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-FIVE COPIES 

OF WHICH THREE HUNDRED AND FIFTY ARE FOR SALE 

PRINTED AT THE RIVERSIDE PRESS 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, U. S. A. 



NUMBER / 



^r 






TO 

^fr William mitt 

PRESIDENT OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 
SOCIETY 



.M.J UBR^^^ 



Thus have I breiflie related (so far forth as hath come 
to my knowledge and remembrance) everie thing of 
most note and importance that hath befallen in the 
first discoverie and planting of these [Bermuda] Hands 
until this present. 

[Master Richard Norwood :] 
Insularum de la Bermuda Detectio 

[circa 1622] 



There was in fh's ship [the * Discovery '] a gentle-man 
by name Mr. lohn Poory, . . . and him selfe after his 
returne [to England] did this poore-plantation [of 
Plymouth] much credite, amongst those of no mean 
ranck. 

Governor William Bradford: 
History of Plimoth Plantation 

[Ed. Doyle, pp. 182-5] 



preface 



THE complete text of one of the unique treasures 
in the John Carter Brown Library, Brown Uni- 
versity, is herewith pubHshed for the first time. Viva- 
cious in style, and treating of matters of much historic 
interest, it deserves a wider reading than it has ever yet 
had in the somewhat difficult script in which it is 
written. Little is known of its history until it arrived 
in this country from England a few years ago and found 
its present appropriate place. Its publication at this time 
is a contribution to the celebration of the approaching 
Tercentenary of the landing of the Pilgrims at Ply- 
mouth in 1620. As Bradford did not commence to 
write his History OfPlimmoth Plantation until 1630, this 
detailed description of the town and its English settlers 
antedates his earliest work by several years. 

C.B. 

The John Carter Brown Library 
January 26, 191 7 



Contents 



Introduction xv 

Insularum de la Bermuda Detectio . . 3 

A CoppiE OF so much of M?. Poreys Letter 
TO THE Lord of Southampton as con- 
cerneth his Relation of New-England 35 

A CoppiE of a parte of M? Poreys Letter 

TO the Governor of Virginia ... 47 

Notes ^^ 



SMU LIBRARY 



3inu0trattons 



Facsimile of Capt. John Smith's issue of Norwood's map 
of the Bermudas of 1622 as rearranged and published 

in the General! Historie, 1624 xvi 

From an original in the Boston Athenaum 

Facsimile of Norwood's Map of the Bermudas as first 
published complete in 1626 2 

From Major-General Lefroy s photo-lithographic repro- 
duction of an original engraving in the British Museum 

Facsimile of the First Page of Norwood's Discovery of 
the Bermuda Islands 4 

Facsimile of Norwood's Drawing of the Prickly Pear . 24 

Facsimile of the First Page of Norwood's Copy of Pory's 
Letter to the Lord of Southampton . . . '2^ 

Facsimile of the First Page of Norwood's Copy of Pory's 
Letter to the Governor of Virginia . . . . 48 



Sntrobuction 



THE manuscript here reproduced was written about 
1622 and has recently been purchased by the John 
Carter Brown Library. This little unbound quarto of 
thirty-two pages (three of them blank ^) is written in the 
fine, clear handwriting characteristic of many English 
manuscripts of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth 
centuries, and may readily be deciphered by any one fa- 
miliar with the scripts of the period. The narrative con- 
sists of three main sections. The first and most extended 
is anonymous and relates to the discovery and early his- 
tory of the Bermudas ; the second (a copy probably in 
the same handwriting) is a delightful epistolary descrip- 
tion of Plymouth and its neighbourhood in 1 6 2 2 by that 
well-known Virginian Adventurer and friend of Gov- 
ernor William Bradford, John Pory ; while the third 
(likewise a copy probably in the same handwriting) is a 
similar description by Pory of the New England coast 
and its inhabitants. 

Captain John Smith evidently consulted this very 
manuscript in preparing his Generall Historie ofVtrgtnta^ 
1 6 24, for the press, and cited certain sections almost ver- 
batim from it, altering the text only slightly here and 
there, as for instance from the first to the third person, 

etc.. 



xvi Introduction 



etc., to suit his convenience, in fact making just such 
changes as clearly establish the priority of our narrative. 
Moreover we learn from the document, that it was pre- 
pared during the term of office of Governor Butler, i.e., 
before autumn, 1622, while the first of the two Pory 
letters bears the definite date 1622. Finally, I have been 
able to identify the anonymous author of the first sec- 
tion, and the probable transcriber of the second and third 
sections, of the manuscript as Richard Norwood, the 
early official surveyor of the English Plantation in the 
Bermudas.' Captain Smith tells us on page 177 of his 
Historie that he * extracted ' his account of these islands 
^out of a plot of Master Richard Norwood Surueior, 
and the relations of diners others .^ In another place (pages 
187-9) Smith says concerning Norwood: 

'According to the directions of the Councell and Company, 
as they had determined by lot, yi. Norwood tooke a plot of the 
lie, and diuided it with as much faithfiilnes as he could, assign- 
ing to euery Adventurer his share or proportion, as namely, to 
lay out a large proportion, to be called the generall land, . . . 
and euery Aduenturer to haue his shares in these tribes as was 
determined, by casting lots in England, the manner of it ap- 
pears by the Map, and more largely by his Booke of the Sur- 
uay of the Countrey, which is in the Records of the Colony. 
And then began this which was before, as you haue heard, but 
as an vnsettled and confused Chaos, to receiue a disposition, 
forme, and order, and become indeed a Plantation.' 

Strangely resembling the above is the following pas- 
sage in the first person from the opening anonymous 
section of our manuscript : ' 

* I alsoe 




CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH'S ISSUE OF NORWOOD'S MAP OF THE BERMUDAS OF I 622 
AS REARRANGED AND PUBLISHED IN THE " GENERALL HISTORIE." 1624 



Introduction xvii 



' I alsoe receiued by Captaine Tucker directions from the Ad- 
uenturers to deuide the country, and to assigne to each Aduen- 
turer his shares or portion of land, and withall [to prepare] a de- 
scription ' with notes touching the manner how they would haue 
it done as they had formerly determined by lot, which thing I 
did with all faithfullnes and diligence. The manner of it doth 
aboueappeare, and is more largely manifested in a booke of the 
Suruey of the country exhibited to the right honorable his Ma- 
jesties Counsell and the Court of Aduenturers for those parts. 
And then began this, which was before, as it were, an vnsetled 
and confused chaos (I meane as touching a plantation, for con- 
sidered onely as a regiment it was otherwise) to receive a con- 
venient disposition, forme, & order, & to become indeed a 
plantation ; . . . ' 

It is Richard Norwood's lost 'plot' of the Bermudas 
together with the reproduction of his map of 1622 to 
which he therein refers, and John Pory's lost descrip- 
tion of Plymouth Colony in the earliest days of the Pil- 
grims to which we would especially call the reader's 
attention. The narratives are written in a brisk and vivid 
style in contrast to the stilted accounts of some early 
travellers, and contain much information which to-day 
is fresh and entertaining. 

As illustrating the contents of the first section of the 
manuscript, we may cite a passage from Norwood's 
quaint and interesting description of the great sea-tor- 
toises and their habits : * 

*. . . And first of the turkle, ... I will onlie write what I haue 
seene and knowne my selfe. They are in the shape of their bodie 
like a crab-fish, and haue foure finnes ; they are as greate as three 

or 



xviii Introduction 



or foure men can carrie. The upper parte of them is covered 
with a greate shell, . . . The flesh that cleaveth to the inside of 
this, being roasted against the fire is excellent meate, almost like 
the marrow of beefe, . . . She hath also a shell on her bellie, not 
so hard, but being boy led itbecommethsoft like the sinewes or 
gristle of beefe, and good meate. . . . They are like to fowle in 
respect of the smalnes and fashion of their heads and necks, 
which are wrinckled like a turkies, but white and not so sharpe 
billed. . . . 

* They resemble beasts in that their flesh is like veale, but 
mor[e] hard and sollid ; and they feed alwaies upon grasse grow- 
ing at the bottome of the water, . . . Shortlie after their first 
comming in, the male and female couple, which we call cooting. 
This they continue some three dayes together, . . . Not long 
after the shee turckle comes up by night upon some sandie bay, 
and further up then the water useth to flow she diggeth a hole 
in the sand with her finne some two foote deepe, and there 
comming up seuerall nights layes her eggs, some halfe a bush- 
ell (which are about the bignes of a hens egge and round as a 
ball), and each time covers them with sand verie curiouslie, so 
that a man shall hardlie finde the place. These eggs (as it seemes) 
are afterwards hatched by the heate of the sunne, and then 
by the providence of God (the meanes yet unknowne to 
us) are brought out of the earth, . . . They grow slowlie & 
seeme to haue a verie long life, they-le [ = they '11] sleepe on the 
top of the water, and were wont to sleepe often on the land be- 
fore the countrie was peopled; they will also live out of the 
water some three weekes, but that without meate, and mourne 
and pine away ; they are very wittie. . . .* 

Turning for a moment to Master John Pory's second 
letter, we find the following brief reference to the strug- 
gling temporary English settlement at Damariscove : ' 

*. . . Besides 



Introduction xix 



*. . . Besides that plantation of New Plymmouth in 41 de- 
grees and ^2, and that other in Massachusett in 42 or there- 
abouts, there is a third in Canada at Damrells Coue [=Dam- 
ariscove] in 43 and 45 minutes at the cost of Sir Ferdinando 
Gorge, consisting of some 13 persons who are to provide fish 
all the yeare with a couple of shallops for the most timelie load- 
ing of a ship. 

* And to keepe that Hand to be fearmed [= farmed] out in 
Sir Ferdinandos name to such as shall there fish, and least the 
French or the salvages should roote them out in winter, they 
haue fortified themselues with a strong pallisado of spruce trees 
of some 10 foote high, haueing besides their small shott, one 
peece of ordinance and some 10 good dogs. Howsoeuer they 
speed, they undertake an hazardous attempt, considering the 
salvages haue beene this yeare (as those to the north use to be 
by the French) furnished in exchange of skinnes by some un- 
worthie people of our nation with peeces, shott, powder, swords, 
blades, and most deadlie arrow heads, and with shallops from 
the French, which they can mannage as well as anie Christian, 
as also their peeces, it being an ordinarie thing with them to 
hitt a bird flying. And how litle they are to be trusted here 
as well as in Virginia, may appeare by the killing latelie of the 
maister of a ship of Plimmouthwith 18 of his Companie among 
the Hands toward the north-east, which was the cause that the 
same ship lost her fishing voyage & went emptie home. . . .' 

Most interesting of all is Pory's first letter written late 
in 1622 (old style), which contains such a glowing ac- 
count of Plymouth Plantation as might well have filled 
the hearts of the Pilgrim Fathers with pride, had they 
ever seen it. Pory's narrative should no doubt carry all 
the more weight because it bears no sign of sectarian 

bias 



XX Introduction 



bias. It will be remembered that he had been Secretary 
for Virginia and had held other offices in that Colony 
since 1 6 1 8 . On his return to England in 1 6 2 2 he sailed 
on the Discovery, *a vessel of sixty tons burden ', com- 
manded by Capt. Thomas Jones, which among other 
places fortunately touched at Plymouth in a time of 
famine. Says Governor Bradford under that date : ^ 

* Behold now another providence of God, a ship comes Into 
the harbor, one captain Ion[e]s being cheefe therin, . . . ther 
was in this ship a gentle-man by name mr. lohn Poory, he had 
been Secretarie in Virginia, and was now going home passenger 
in this ship. . . . and him selfe after his returne did this poore- 
plantation much credite, amongst those of no mean ranck.' 

This last remark of Bradford's probably refers in part 
to the following words by Pory now first published : ^ 

*. . . After some dangerous and almost incureable errors and 
mistakings, he [the pilot of the Mayflower] stumbled by ac- 
cident upon the harbour of Plimouth, where after the Planters 
had fayled of their intention, and the pilot of his, it pleased 
Almightie God (who had better provided for them then their 
owne hearts could imagine) to plant them upon the seate of an 
old towne [Patuxet], which divers [years ?] before had beene 
abandoned of the Indians. So they both quietlie and justlie 
sate downe without either dispossessing anie of the natiues, or 
being resisted by them, and without shedding so much as one 
drop of blood, which fselicitie of theirs is confirmed unto them 
even by the voyces of the salvages them selues, who generallie 
do acknowledge not onlie the seate, but the whole segniorie 
thereto belonging, to be, and do themselues disclaime all title 
from it, so that the right of those Planters to it is altogether 

unquestionable. 



Introduction xxi 



unquestionable, — a favour which since the first discoverie of 
America God hath not vouchsafed, so far as ever I could learne, 
vpon anie Christian nations within that Continent, . . . but to 
leave this priuiledge to them whome it concernes, and to de- 
scribe to your Lordshipp the excellencie of the place, first, the 
harbour is not onelie pleasant for aire and prospect, but most 
sure for shipping both small and greate, being land-locked on 
all sides. The towne is seated on the ascent of a hill, which be- 
sides the pleasure of variable objects entertaining the unsatis- 
fied eye, such is the wholesomenes of the place (as the Governor 
[Bradford] told me) that for the space of one whole yeare, 
of the two wherein they had beene there, dyed not one man, 
woman, or child. This healthfulnes is accompanied with much 
plentie both offish and fowle everie day in the yeare, as I know 
no place in the world that can match it. In March the eeles 
come forth out of places where they lie bedded all winter, into 
the fresh streames, and there p. <?., thence] into the sea, andjn 
their passages are taken in pots. In September they runne out 
of the sea into the fresh streames, to bed themselues in the 
ground all winter, and are taken againe in pots as they returne 
homewards. In winter the inhabitants digge them up, being 
bedded in gravell not aboue two or three foote deepe, and all 
the rest of the yeare they may take them in pots in the salt wa- 
ter of the bay. They are passing sweete, fat, and wholesome, 
haueing no taste at all of the mudde, and are as greate as ever I 
saw anie. In Aprill & May come up another kinde offish which 
they call herring, or old wiues, in infinite skulls [= schools] 
into a small river runing under the towne, and soe into a greate 
pond or lake of a mile broad where they cast their spawne, the 
water of the sayd river beeing in manie places not aboue halfe a 
foote deepe. Yea, when a heape of stones is reared up against 
them a foote high aboue the water, they leape and tumble over 
and will not be beaten backe with cudgels, . . . The inhabitants 

during 



xxii Introduction 



during the sayd two moneths take them up everie day in hogse- 
heads, and with those they eate not they manure the ground, 
burying 2, or 3 in each hill of come, and may, when they are 
able, if they see cause, lade whole ships with them. At their 
going up they are very fat and savory, but at their comming 
downe, after they haue cast their spawnes, they are shotte, and 
therefore leane and unwholsome. 

•Into another river some two miles to the north-east of Plym- 
mouth all the moneth of May the greate smelts passe up to 
spawne likewise in troupes innumerable, which with a scoupe, 
or a boule, or a peece of barke, a man may cast up upon the 
banke. About mid-way come into the harbour the manie skull 
[= school] off [= of ] basse and blew fish, which they take with 
skaines [= seines?], — some fishes of afooteand a halfe, some 
of two foote, and some of 3 foote long, and with hookes those 
of 4 and 5 foote long. They enter also at flowing water [= flood 
tide] up into the small creeks, at the mouths whereof the in- 
habitants, spreading their nets, haue caught 500 and 700 at a 
time. . . . Now as concerning the blew fish, in delicacie it excel- 
leth all kinde offish that ever I tasted, I except not the salmon 
of the Thames in his prime season, nor anie other fish. We 
called it by a compound name of blacke, white, blew, sweete, 
fat, — the skinne and skale blew ; the flesh next under the scale 
for an inch deepe blacke, and as sweete as the marrow of an 
oxe ; the residue of the flesh underneath purelie white, fat, and 
of a taste requireing noe addition of sauce. By which allureing 
qualities it may seeme dangerouslie tending to a sarfeit, but we 
found by experience that haueing satisfied and in a manner 
glutted ourselfes therewith, it proved wholesome unto us and 
most easie of digestion. . . . Oysters there are none, but at 
Masachusett some 20 miles to the north of this place there 
are such huge ones by salvages report, as I am loth to report. 
For ordinarie ones of which there be manie, they make to be 
as broad as a bushell, but one among the rest they compared to 

the 



Introduction xxiii 



the greate cabbin in the Discoverie, and being sober and well 
advised persons, grew verie angrie when they were laughed at 
or not beleeved ! I would haue had Captaine Jones to haue 
tried out the truth of this report, and what was the reason ? If, 
said I, the oysters be soe greate and haue anie pearles in them, 
then must the pearles be answerable in greatnes to the oysters, 
and proving round and orient also, would farre exceed all other 
Jewells in the world ! Yea, what strange and pretious things 
might be found in so rare a creature ! But Captaine Jones his 
imploying his pinnace in discoverie, his graueing of the ship, 
his hast away about other occasions and busines, would not per- 
mit him to doe that which often since he wished he could haue 
done. . . . 

*The reasons of their [the Plymouth colonists'] continuall 
plentie for those 7 moneths in the yeare may be the ' contin- 
uall tranquillitie of the place, being guarded on all sides from 
the furie of the stormes, as also the abundance of food they 
finde at low water, the bottome of the bay then appearing as a 
greene meadow, and lastlie the number of frishets [= brooks] 
runing into the bay, where . . . they may refresh and quench 
their thirst. And therefore this bay is such a pond for fowle, 
as in any mans knowledge of our nation that hath scene it, all 
America hath not the like. . . . 

*So much of [= for] the wholsomnes and plentie of the coun- 
trie. Now as concerning the qualitie of the people, how happie 
were it for our people in the Southern Colonic [= Virginia], if 
they were as free from wickednes and vice as these are in this 
place 1 And their Industrie as well appeareth by their building, 
as by a substantial! pallisado about their [? settlement] of 2700 
foote in compasse, stronger then I haue scene anie in Virginia, 
and lastlie by a blockhouse which they haue erected in the 
highest place of the towne to mount their ordinance upon, from 
whence they may commaund all the harbour. As touching their 
correspondencie with the Indians, they are freinds with all their 

neighbours. 



xxiv Introduction 



neighbours, as namelie with those of Conahassit [=Cohasset] 
and Massachusit to the north, with the greate king of Paka- 
nakie to the south-west, with those of Pawmet, Nausit, Capa- 
wacke and others to the east and south. . . .' 



Norwood's great map was first offered to the public com- 
plete in 1626, when evidently it could be obtained in London 
on separate sheets (probably without any letter-press on the 
back) from * George Humble in Pops-head Alley against the 
Exchainge.* It did not, however, bear Norwood's name, since, 
though separately engraved by Goos at Amsterdam, it may 
even in 1626 have been intended later to form an integral 
part of John Speed's Prospect of the most famovs Parts of the 
VVorldy published by Humble in 1631. Most of the maps 
in the volume bear the date 1626. Here, at any rate, on the 
Ieavesincludingpages4i-44(sigs.x-x2), appeared Norwood's 
map together with the anonymous complete text of the Detectio 
prefaced by two new paragraphs, also anonymous, manifestly 
by Norwood. Even the four notes of the original manuscript 
and the drawing of the prickly pear are faithfully reproduced, 
though various minor alterations have been made. Thus 
Norwood's early work was perpetuated, although when the 
book was subsequently brought out by Basset and Chiswel in 
1676, the date 1626 on the map was omitted, Norwood's text 
was abbreviated, and the illustration removed. Perfect copies 
of the first edition of Speed's Prospect are now comparatively 
scarce, and Major General Lefroy wisely reproduced the map 
in 1874, and in 1877 published it at the close of the first 
volume of his Memorials of the Discovery and Early Settlement 
of the Bermudas. He recognized the map as Norwood's, but 
does not seem to have identified as his the descriptive text 
which appears on the back in Speed, if indeed he ever saw it. 
To-day, after the lapse of two and a half centuries, we bring 
together a reproduction of Norwood's map and the original 
text of his narrative. 



THE DISCOVERY 
OF THE BERMUDA ISLANDS 



^ 




OMPLETE IN 1626 



Insularum de la Bermuda 
Detectio 

C I 1 

[2] Insularum de la Bermuda Detectio.' 

THE Ilandesformerlie called the Bermudas, now 
the SommerIlands,shunned by travellers as most 
dangerous, and seldome scene by anie except 
against their wills, reputed to be rather a hold and habita- 
tion for divells, then anie fit place for men to abide in, were 
discovered in the yeare, 1609, in manner following. 
There were at that time eight ships sent by the Adven- 
turers to Virginia, amongst which one of the best and 
strongest was called the Sea-venture, in burthen neere 
3 00^^ tunne. In this were their cheife Commaunders, Sir 
Thomas Gates, and Sir George Sommers, and with 
them about 150 persons. And upon the 25^^ of Julie, 
the same yeare, this ship called the Sea-venture, was by 
a fierce and terrible storme seperated from the fleete, 
and withall so shaken and torne by violence of the 
weather, that she sprung a leake, whereat the water 
came in so fast, that in short time it was seaven or eight 
foote deepe within the hold. Whereupon, for safegard 
of their ship and lives, they fell to pomping and haling 

out 



Discovery of the Bermudas 



out the water with bucketes, and continued this their 
labour for three dayes and as manie nightes without in- 
termission, but then perceiuing that they availed noth- 
ing, the water in this space rather increasing then de- 
creasing. Now hopelesse of safetie, tired, and outworne 
with labour, watching, and discomfort, and desireing 
to refresh their enfeebled spirites with some litle rest 
before their death, they resolved to cease their labour 
and so by conseqence permit their ship to sinke. Sir 
George Sommers, sitting day and night all this while 
upon the poope to direct the shipp as evenlie as might 
be, [3] least shee should be overturned or swallowed 
of the waves, espied land, and thereupon called the 
companie together, and encouraged them againe to 
pomping, and casting out water, by which meanes 
they kept her up from sinking, and by Godes prov- 
idence escaped the rockes, till they got within halfe a 
mile of the shoare, where she stucke fast betweene two 
rockes. The extremitie of the storme being then well 
qualified [= spent], they had time to land all their men, 
most parte of their provision, and to saue much of the 
ships tackling and yron-worke before she sanke, and 
thus' it pleased God by this evill to bring to passe a far 
greater good, agreeable to that saying. 

Quae latet, inque bonis cessat non cognlta rebus 
Apparet virtus, arguiturque malis. 

Haueing thus escaped the imminent daunger of pres- 
ent death, and all safelie arrived, we may well conceiue 

their 



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FIRST PAGE OF NORWOOD'S 
"DISCOVERY OF THE BERMUDA ISLANDS" 



Discovery of the Bermudas 



their joy to haue beene greate, especiallie when they 
found there in greate abundance, fish, fowle, hogs, and 
other thinges for the sustenance of man, and which they 
most of all feared [they might not find], water, but noe 
peopl e, or anie cattell, except those hoges and a few wilde 
cats, which in likelyhood had swume away out of some 
ship cast away upon the coast, and there encreased. 
They abode there nine monthes, during which time, 
with helpe of such thinges as they saued of the Sea- 
venture, and of such as they found in the countrie, they 
built of cedar and rigged fit for the sea, two vessels, [4] 
a ship and a pinnance, and upon the i o of May, 1 6 1 o, 
departed toward Virginia, leaving onlie two men be- 
hinde them, and carrying with them store of provision 
for the releife of the people there. Vpon the 24 of May 
they arrived safelie there, and shortlie after some of 
them returned to the Sommer Hands againe for a fur- 
ther supplie in the same ship which they had formerlie 
built there, where Sir George Sommers dying his men 
did not according to his last charge given unto them 
returne to Virginia, but framed their course for Eng- 
land, leaving behind them three men that stayed vol- 
untarilie, who shortlie after found in Sommerset Hand, 
which is parte of Sandys Tribe, a verie greate treasure 
in amber-greece, to the valew of nine or tenne thousand 
pound sterling. There hath also beene found since, di- 
uerse times, of the best sort. This new discoverie of the 
Sommer Hand[s], being thus made knowne in England, 

to 



Discovery of the Bermudas 



to the Virginian Companie by these men which re- 
turned, they sold it to some 1 20 persons of the same 
countrie, who obtained a Charter from his Majestie, 
and so hold it, and toward the latter end of Aprill, 1 6 1 2, 
sent thither a ship called the Plough, with some sixtie 
persons to inhabite, appointing governour, one M" 
Richard Moore, a man ingenious and carefull, who 
since died in Sir Walter Rawleyes last voyage to Guiana 
(a place, as appeares by our moderne Geographers, verie 
rich and spatious). 

[5] But as I say he arrived there about the begining 
of July, and found the three foresaid men that stayed 
voluntarilie verie well. M. Moore spent the three years 
of his gouerment for the most part in fortifying the 
countrey and trayning the people in martiall exercises, 
which custome hath beene continued by his succes- 
sours. He built some nine or tenne forts, placing ord- 
nance and munition in them. In his time the Lord sent 
vpon the countrey a very greiuous scourge ^ and punish- 
ment, threat [n]ing the vtter ruine and desolation of it. 
That it came from God I neede not striue to proue, espe- 
cially considering it was generally soe acknowledged by 
vs at that time. The causes and occasions I need not 
name, being very well knowne to vs all that lined 
there, which were about 600 persons, though shortly 
after much deminished. I will only shew the thing 
it selfe which was a wonderfull annoyance by silly 
ratts. 

These 



Discovery of the Bermudas 7 

These ratts coming at first out of a ship few in num- 
ber increased in the space of two years or lesse so ex- 
ceedingly, that they filled not only those places where 
they were first landed, but swiming from place to place 
spread themselues into all parts of the countrey, inso- 
much that there was noe Hand, though seuered by the 
sea from all other lands and many miles distant from the 
iles where the ratts had their originall, but was pestered 
with them. They had theire nests almost in euery tree, 
and in all places their burrows in the grownd (like Con- 
nies) to harbour in. They spared not the fruites of plants 
or trees, neither the plants themselues, but eat [=ate] 
them vp. When we had sett our corne, they would com- 
monly come by troupes the night following, or soe 
soone as it beganne to grow, and digge it vp againe. If 
by diligent watching any of it were preserued till it came 
to earing, it should then very hardly escape. Yea, it was 
a difficult matter after we had it in our houses to [6] 
saue it from them, for they became noysome euen to 
the persons of men. We vsed all diligence for the de- 
stroying of them, nourishing many cats, wild and tame, 
for that purpose. We vsed ratsbane, and many times 
sett fyer on the woods, so as the fire might runne halfe 
a mile or more before it were extinct. Euery man in the 
country was enioyned to sett twelue traps, and some of 
their owne accord sett neere a hundreth, which they 
visited twice or thrice in a night. We trayned vp our 
dogges to hunt them, wherein they grew so expert that 

a good 



8 Discovery of the Bermudas 

a good dogge in two or three howers space would kill 
fortie or fiftie ratts, and other meanes we vsed to destroy 
them, but could not preuaile, finding them still to en- 
crease against vs. 

And this was the principall cause of that great dis- 
tresse whervnto we was driuen in the first planting of 
the countrye, for these deuouring the fruites of the earth 
kept vs destitute of bread a yeare or two, soe that when 
we had it afterwards againe, we were so weaned from 
it, that we should easily forgett to eat it with our meate. 
We were also destitute at that timeof boates and other 
prouision for fishing, and moreouer M' Moore had re- 
ceiued warning from England that he should expect 
the Spaniard that yeare, yett they came not but with 
two ships, which attempting to come in, and haueing 
there boate before them to sound the way, were shot 
at by the said M' Moore from Kings Castle, and as we 
supposed one of them stricken through, wherevpon they 
presently departed. But (as I say) this expectation of 
them caused vs (though in great necessitie) to hasten 
the fortification of the countrye. All these ioyntly (but 
principally the ratts) were the causes of our distresse : 
for being destitute of foode many dyed, and we ^ all be- 
came very f [ee]ble and weake, wherof some being so 
would not, others could not, stirre abroad to seeke re- 
leife, but dyed in their houses : such as went abroad were 
subiect through weaknes to be [7] surprised with a dis- 
ease we called the Feages, which was neither payne or 

sicknes. 



Discovery of the Bermudas 



sicknes, but as it were the highest degree of weaknes, 
depriueing vs of power and abilitye for execution of 
any bodely exercise, whether it were working, walking, 
or what els. Being thus taken, if there were any in com- 
pany that could minister any releife, they would straygh t= 
wayes recouer, other^ways they dyed there: yett many 
after a little rest would be able to walke againe, and 
then if they found any succour were saued. 

About this time, or immediatly before, came thither 
a company of rauens, which continued with vs all the 
time of this mortality, and then departed. There were 
not before that time, nor since (so farr as I heare), any 
more of them scene there. And this with some other rea- 
sons of more moment moued many to thinke that there 
was some other Hands nere the Sommerzllands betweene 
Virginia and it. And M"" Moore (in his time with some 
others of vs) went forth in a boate so farr as then we could 
conueniently of purpose to discouer it. Since then it hath 
beene endeuoured by others, and is yet as [I] heare to be 
further attempted, and howsoeuer I am perswaded (for 
certaine causes, which I cannot here relate) ther is no 
such thing, yet would I not disanimate any from this en- 
terprise, for if they find any, there labours wil be wel 
recompenced, and though they find none, yet they dis- 
couer those parts so well, that the passage to and from 
Virginia would be more safe and easie. 

But to returne from whence we haue digressed, the 
extremitye of our destresse began to abate a litle before 

M' 



lo Discovery of the Bermudas 

M' Moores time of gouerment was expired, partly by- 
supplies out of England of victuall and prouision for fish- 
ing, and partly by that rest and libertye we then obtained, 
the country being fortifyed, yet the ratts encreased and 
continnuedallmosttotheendofCaptaineTuckerstime, 
allthough he was prouident and industrious to destroy 
them, but toward the end of his [8] time it pleased God 
(by what meanes it is not well knowne) to take them 
away, insomuch that the wild catts and many doggs 
which liued on them were famished, and many of them, 
leaueing the woods came downe to houses and to such 
places where they vse to garbish theire fish, and became 
tame. Some haue attributed this destruction of them to 
the encrease of wild catts, but that [=it] is not likly 
they should be so soone encreased at that time more then 
in the foure yeares before. And the cheife occasion of 
this supposition was because they saw such companies 
of them leaue the woods and shew themselues for want 
of foode. Others haue supposed it to come to passe by 
the coldnesse of the weather, which notwithstanding is 
neuer so great there as with vs in March, nor scarce 
as [great as] it is in Aprill, except it be in the wind. 
Besides the rattes wanted not feathers of yong birds and 
chickens, which they dayly killed, and of palmeto 
mosse (as we call it) to build themselues warme nests 
out of the winde, as vsually they did. Neither doth it 
appeare that colde was so mortal to them, seeing they 
would ordinarily swim from place to place and be very 

fatt 



Discovery of the Bermudas 1 1 

fatt euen in the midst of winter. It remaineth then that 
as we know God doth sometimes effect his will with- 
out subordinate and secondary causes, and some times 
against them, so we neede not doubt but that in the 
speedy encrease of these vermines, as alsoe by the pres- 
eruation of vs by so weake means as we then enioyed, 
and especially in the sudden remoueall of this great an- 
noyance, there was ioyned with and besides the ordi- 
narie and manifest means, a more immediate and secret 
worke of God. 

Now to proceed, M"" Moores time of gouerment 
being expired, Captaine Tucker succeeded [blank 
space],' ariueing there about mid-May, 1616, who 
likewayse gouerned (according to the custome) three 
years, which time he spent for the most part in husband- 
ring the countrie, planting, and nourishing all such 
things as was found fitt either for trade or for the sus- 
tentation and vse of the inhabitants, wherin he trau- 
ailed [?] with much diligence and good successe, sending 
[to] some parts of the Indies for [9] plants and fruits. 
He also added to the fortifications and made some in- 
closures in his time, viz., in the yeare 16 17 was sent a 
ship and prouision with men of skill for the killing of 
whales, but they arriued there too late, to witt, about 
the midst of Aprill, so that before they could make ready 
their shallops and fitt themselues, the principall season 
for whalezfishing was past, for the whales come thither 
in Januarie, and depart againe toward the latter end of 

May. 



^''^^ LIBRARY 



I 2 Discovery of the Bermudas 

May. Yett they strooke some, but found them soe liuely, 
swift, and feirce after they were stricken, that they could 
take none. They yeeld great store of oyle as appeared 
by one that draue to shoare on Sommerset Hand in San- 
dys tribe, and by another that we found not far from 
theare dead vpon a rocke. 

r alsoe receiued by Captaine Tucker directions from 
the Aduenturers to deuide the country, and to assigne 
to each Aduenturer his shares or portion of land, and 
withall [to prepare] a description' with notes touching 
the manner how they would haue it done as they had 
formerly determined by lot, which thing I did with all 
faithfullnes and diligence. The manner of it doth aboue 
appeare, and is more largely manifested in a booke of 
the Suruey of the country exhibited to the right hon- 
orable his Majesties Counsell and the Court of Aduen- 
turers for those parts. And then began this, which was 
before, as it were, an vnsetled and confused chaos (I 
meane as touching a plantation, for considered onely as 
a regiment it was otherwise) to receiue a convenient dis- 
position, forme, & order, & to become indeed a plan- 
tation ; for though the countrie was small, yet they could 
not haue beene convenientlie disposed & well setled 
without a true description & suruey of it. And againe 
everie man being setled where he might constantlie 
abide, they knew their busines & fitted their houshold 
accordinglie. They built for themselues and families not 
tents or cabbins, but more substantiall houses. They 

cleared 



Discovery of the Bermudas 1 3 

cleared their grounds & planted not onlie such things 
as would yeeld them their fruites in a yeare, or halfe a 
yeare, but all such too as would afford them profitt after 
certaine yeares, &c., so that in short time after, even be- 
fore the expiration of Captaine Tuckers goverment, 
[10] the countrie began to aspire & neerelie to approach 
unto that happines and prosperitie wherein now it flour- 
isheth. For may it not justlie be accounted happines 
& prosperitie, for men to Hue where they enjoy the 
meanes of true religion and salvation, to wit, the syncere 
ministerie of the Word and Sacramentes, where the gov- 
ernment is good without rigour and oppression, the place 
healthfull and temperate, where they are freed from all 
extremitie,care, and toy le, where they hauefood in abun- 
dance, and verie good, with other things needfull to the 
bodies, and where they haue commodities meete for 
trade, by which they may better and advance their es- 
tats ? All which and more is verified in the present estate 
of that colonie, whatsoever some maliciously minded, 
or to some evill ends suborned, may say to the contrarie, 
so that there may seeme to be a restauration of that 
Golden Age so much spoken of. 

The governour now there resident is one Captaine 
Butler, for Captaine Tucker departing thence in De- 
cember, 161 8[?], left in his place, Captaine Kendall, 
who also was one that supplied the same place in the 
interim betweene M"- Moores time and Captaine Tuck- 
ers, and hath spent some nine or tenne yeares in the 

countrie. 



14 Discovery of the Bermudas 

countrie. But in the yeare, 1 6 1 9, about midsommer, the 
Adventurers sent thither as governour for three yeares 
(according to the custome) the said Captaine Butler with 
4 ships and some five hundred persons, there beeing at 
that time in the countrie onUe five hundred moe, for by 
the space of foure yeares, to wit, during the latter part 
of Moores goverment, and all the time of Captaine 
Tuckers they had sent few thither, being almost hope- 
lesseofthe place by reason of the rates [=rats]. But since, 
there have beene sent manie companies more then have 
come to my knowledge, insomuch that I understand 
the countrie is now almost fullie planted and inhabited. 

Thus have I breiflie related (so far forth as hath come 
to my knowledge and remembrance) everie thing of 
most note and importance that hath befallen in the first 
discoverie and planting of these Hands until this pres- 
ent. I have laboured to contract my selfe, yet haue ex- 
ceeded my entended limites. Now I must speake some- 
thing of the countrie it selfe, which consisteth of a 
companie of small Hands situated and formed as aboue 
appeareth. It lieth in the westerne ocean, in that part of 
the world latelie discovered and called America or the 
New World, vulgarlie the West Indies. It hath latitude 
or elevation (as is aforesayd) 32 degrees, 25 minutes, 
which is almost the same with the Maderaes, or rather 
more southward. 

[11] Now the better to manifest the situation of it, I 
haue reduced the whole into a narrow roome, placing 

it. 



Discovery of the Bermudas 15 

it, as aboue appeareth, at the center or middle of the 
flie ' or compasse, and withall haue made an appearance 
of the sea-coast of Virginia, as also of sundrie other 
places of note adjacent thereto, acording to their true 
position and distance from it, as neere as I could gather ; 
so that the compasse sheweth how anie of those places 
beare from the Sommer-Ilands: and if yow measure by 
the partes of the graduated meridian from the middle of 
the compasse to anie of those places, yow haue their dis- 
tance, for everie degree is twentie leagues or sixtie miles/ 
The countrie is roundabout environed ^ with rocks 
which to the northward, west-ward, and south-west- 
ward, extend farther then hath beene yet discovered. By 
reason of these rocks the countrie is verie strong, for there 
is onlie two places (and scarce two except to such as know 
them well) where shipping may safely come in, and 
those places are verie well fortified, but within is roome 
to entertaine a royall fleete. The rockes in most places 
appear at a low water, neither are they much covered 
at a high water, for it ebbs and flowes there not aboue 
five foote. The shoare it selfe (for the most parte) is a 
rocke so hardened by the sune, winde, and sea, that it is 
not apt to be worne by the waves, whose violence is also 
broken by the rocks before they come at the shoare. The 
mould is of divers colours neither clay nor sand, but a 
meane betweene. The red which resembleth clay is 
worst, the whitish resembling sand and blackish clay is 
good. The browne betweene them both (which they 

call 



1 6 Discovery of the Bermudas 

call white, because there is mingled with it, as it were, 
a white marie) is best. Vnder the mould two or three 
foot deepe and somtimes lesse, is a kinde of white, hard 
substance, which they call the rocke. The trees usuallie 
fasten their rootes in it, and draw their nourishment 
from it. Neither is it indeed rocke or stone, nor so hard, 
though for the most parte harder then chalke, not soe 
white, but pumicelike and spongie, easilie receiving 
and containing much water. I haue seene in some places 
clay found under it. It seemes to be ingendred of the 
raine water draining through the earth, and drawing 
with it of his substance unto a certaine depth, where it 
congeales. The hardest kinde of it (which is common- 
lie under the red ground) is not so spungie nor retaines 
much water, but lieth in the ground in quarries, as it 
werethicke slates one upon an other, and there is some 
chinks betweene one lare [= layer ?] and another through 
which the water hath passage, so that in such places 
there is scarce found anie fresh water, for all or the most 
parte of their fresh water commeth out of the sea, drayn- 
ing through the sand or through the fore-sayd substance 
which they call the rocke, and leaving his salt behinde, 
it becomes fresh. Sometimes we digged wells of fresh 
water within foure or five paces of the sea-side, som- 
times further off. Some of them would ebb and flow 
as the sea did, and be level or litle higher then the su- 
perficies of the sea. 

The aire is most commonlie cleare, verie temperate, 

moist. 



Discovery of the Bermudas 1 7 

moist, with a moderate heat, verie healthfull, and apt 
for the generation and nourishing of all things, soe that 
there is scarce anie thing transported from hence thither, 
but it yeelds a far greater encrease, and if it be a living 
thing, becomes fatter and better liking then here. 

[12] By this meanes the countrie was so replenished 
with henns and turkies within the space of three or foure 
yeares, that being neglected manie of them forsooke the 
houses, and became wilde, and so lived in greate aboun- 
dance. The like increase there is of hogs and other cat- 
tle according to their kinds. There seemes to be a con- 
tinuall spring, which is the cause that some few things 
come not to that maturitie and perfection as were re- 
quisite. And though the trees do shed their leaves, yet 
are they alwayes full of greene. Their corne is the same 
which they use almost in all partes of the West Indies, 
to wit, maiz, which to such as are used to it is more 
heartie and nourishing then our English wheate, and 
yeilds a far greater increase, as a pound sometimes, of one 
or two graines. Of this corne and divers other things, 
without either plowing or digging the ground, they 
haue two harvestes everie y eare, for they set about March, 
which they gather in July ; and againe in August, which 
is ripe in December; and litle slips of figg-trees, and 
vines, doe usually beare fruite within lesse then a yeare 
after they are planted, somtimes in halfe a yeare. The 
like fertillitie it hath in other thinges. 

There is scarce at anie time to be perceiued either 

frost 



1 8 Discovery of the Bermudas 

frost or snow, nor anie extreame heate, for there is al- 
most alwayes some winde stirring which cleareth and 
cooleth the ayre. Their sommers and winters observe 
the same time with ours, but their longest dayes are 
shorter then ours in England by two houres and almost 
a halfe, as also their shortest dayes and nightes are so 
much longer then ours, for their longest dayes and nights 
are about fourteene houres, and their ^ shortest tenne. 
When it is noone with us it is morning with them, and 
when it is about five of the clocke in the evening with 
us, it is high noone with them, so that whilst the sunne 
declines with us, it riseth with them, as also it doth in 
Virginia. It is apt to thunder and lightning all the yeare, 
oft-times more terrible then in England, but no man or 
other living creature haue I knowne hurt by it. There 
is no venemous creature in the countrie. The yellow 
spider which is there, making her web as it were of 
silke, and bringing forth her young (as the Alcumists 
their stone) of eggs, like litle balls of quicke silver, is 
not perceived to be anie whit venemous, yet there is a 
plant (that clymeth trees like ivie, the leafe also of the 
same colour, but in shape like the vine) that is some- 
what venemous, but of no greate force. 

There is great store and varietie offish, and so good 
as these partes of the world afford not the like, which 
being for the most parte unknowne to us, each man gave 
them names as they best liked, as one kind they called 
rock-fish, another groopers, others porgy-fish, hog-fish, 

angel-fish. 



Discovery of the Bermudas 19 

angel-fish, cavaleys, yellow-tayles, Spanish-mackerell, 
mulletes, breame, cunny-fish, morrayes, stingrayes, fly- 
ing '-fish, &c. The like they did by the fowle, as co- 
hooes, sand-birds, herones, ducke, & teale, [13] pem- 
licoes[?], castle-boobies, hawkes, &c. The countrie 
when we first began the plantation was all overgrowne 
with woodes and plants of severall kinds, and to such 
kindes as were unknowne to us (which were the most 
parte) we also gave names, such as were knowne retain- 
ing their old names, as cedars, palmetoes, black-wood, 
whitewood, yellow-wood, mulberrie-trees, stopper- 
trees, laurell, and olive-trees, mangrowes, pepper-trees, 
yellow-berrieweed, redweed. These and manie others 
we found naturallie growing in the countrie. But since 
it hath beene inhabited there hath beene brought thither, 
as well from the Indies as other parts of the world, sun- 
drie other plants, as vines of severall kindes, sugar-canes, 
figg-trees, apple-trees, oranges, lymons, pomegranets, 
plantanes, pines, parsnips, radishes, artichokes, potatoes, 
Cassado-Indico, and manie others, insomuch that it is 
now become as it were some specious garden and nur- 
cerie of manie pleasant and profitable things. 

Now if I should proceed to a more speciall narration, 
and speak of all these plants, birds, fishes, and other re- 
markable things particularly, I could not but be much 
larger then was anie way expedient in this place. Be- 
sides I haue long since understood, that Captaine Butler 
(the gouernour there resident) hath undertaken to write 

of 



2 Discovery of the Bermudas 

of these & the like things a particular treatise.' This 
therefore that is spoken touching the nature of the coun- 
trie in generall shall suffice. Onlie to giue the reader 
some taste and satisfaction in that kinde, I will make 
choise of two particulars, whereof I will speake, not so 
largelie as the things require, but so far forth as will be 
meete and convenient in this place. The first shalbe a 
tortoys, which they call a turckle, which haueing some 
resemblance with fishes, beasts, and fowles, shall serue 
in stead of a historieof them all. The other shall be that 
which they call the prided peare-tree, which partici- 
pateing in nature, and resembling in some things hearbs, 
in other, trees, shall likewise serue in stead of thenatu- 
rall historie of them both. And first of the turkle, not 
regarding (for brevities sake) the large discourses of 
others, I will onlie write what I haue scene and knowne 
my selfe. They are in the shape of their bodie like a 
crab-fish, and haue foure finnes ; they are as greate as 
three or foure men can carrie. The upper parte of them 
is covered with a greate shell, which we call a galley 
patch, weighing (as I take it) halfe a hundred weight. 
The flesh that cleaveth to the inside of this, being roasted 
against the fire is excellent meate, almost like the mar- 
row of beefe, but the shell it selfe harder then home. She 
hath also a shell on her bellie, not so hard, but being 
boyled it becommeth soft like the sinewes or gristle of 
beefe, and good meate. These Hue in the sea spending 
the spring time and parte of the summer about these 

Hands, 



Discovery of the Bermudas 2 i 

Hands, but the residue of the yeare we know not where. 
They are like to fowle in respect of thesmalnes and fash- 
ion of their heads and necks, which are wrinckled like 
a turkies, but white and not so sharpe billed. They also 
breed their young of eggs which they lay. 

[14] They resemble beasts in that their flesh is like 
veale, but mor[e] hard and sollid ; and they feed alwaies 
upon grasse growing at the bottome of the water, neither 
can they abide longer under the water then they hold 
their breath, which the old ones will do long, but the 
young ones being chased to and fro, cannot continue 
two minutes without comming to take breath. Shortlie 
after their first comming in, the male and female couple, 
which we call cooting. This they continue some three 
dayes together, during which time they will scarce sep- 
erate, though a boate come to them, nor hardlie when 
they are smitten. Not long after the shee turckle comes 
up by night upon some sandie bay, and further up then 
the water useth to flow she diggeth a hole in the sand 
with her finne some two foote deepe, and there com- 
ming up seuerall nights layes her eggs, some halfe a 
bushell (which are about the bignes of a hens egge and 
round as a ball), and each time covers them with sand 
verie curiouslie, so that a man shall hardlie finde the 
place. These eggs (as it seemes) are afterwards hatched by 
the heate of the sunne, and then by the providence of God 
(the meanes yet unknowne to us) are brought out of the 
earth, for we could never perceive that shee returnes 

anie 



2 2 Discovery of the Bermudas 

anie more to them, and yet in likelihood they remaine 
not long under the earth after they are hatched, because 
(aslhaue before said [)] they cannot Hue without breath- 
ing. We sometimes see the young ones noe bigger then 
a mans hand, which some fish will devoure. They grow 
slowlie & seeme to haue a verie long life, they-le 
[ = they '11] sleepe on the top of the water, and were 
wont to sleepe often on the land before the countrie was 
peopled; they will also live out of the water some three 
weekes, but that without meate, and mourne and pine 
away ; they are very wittie. Being upon the land turned 
upon their backes, they can noe more helpe or recover 
themselues without some advantage, by which meanes 
when they come on shoare to lay their eggs they are 
easilie taken, as also when they are cooting. But other- 
wayes we take them for the most parte by night, making 
a greate light in a boate, to which they will sometimes 
swime and seldome shun, so that a man standing readie 
with a staffe in his hand which hath at one end a socket, 
wherein is an yron lesse than a mans finger, foure-square 
and sharpe, with a line fastned to it, he striking this yron 
into the upper shell of the turckle, it sticks so fast, that 
after shee hath a litle tyred her selfe by swimming to 
and fro, she is taken by it. They will Hue, the head be- 
ing cut of [ = off], foure and twentie houres, soe that if 
yow cut the flesh with a knife or touch it, it will trem- 
ble and shrinke away. There is no meate will keepe 
longer, either fresh or salt. 

[15] But 



Discovery of the Bermudas 23 

[i 5] But leaving these we will now come to speake 
of the prickled peares, which are a fruite growing in 
these Hands in such places as are [not] fit for anie thing 
else, namelie, upon rocks, and cliffs, and commonlie by 
the sea-side, as if the salt water did something helpe to 
the generation and nourishing of them. The tree seemes 
to grow certaine years before it beares fruite, and then to 
continue bearing verie manie yeares, haueing almost all 
theyeare long fruite upon it. And though we call this a 
tree, yet hath it scarce anie bodie or branches, but con- 
sisteth in a manner wholie of leaues and fruite, soft and 
brittle. But because there is a verie learned writer hath 
made a description (as it may seeme) of this plant, 
wherein he hath also given some light of that profit and 
commoditie which may arise of it, I haue thought good 
to translate the same into English, and here to insert it, 
which is as followeth : 

Cardanus : De Varietate Rerum. 

The purple or scarlet die hath alwaies beene of great- 
est value, and it is two-fold, to wit, of wooll, which in 
times past was thus coloured with the juice of a ''fish 
whereof we haue spoken where we treated of fishes. 
Of late it hathe beene dyed with ^Coccus, whereof we 
haue also spoken in his place. But silke as we haue said 

a. There is in the Summer Hands (as I haue seene to the westward of Port- 
Royall) such a kinde offish yeelding a purple juice, but I do not so well remem- 
ber it as to set downe certainlie whether it be the purple fish he heere speaketh of. 

b. This seemeth to be of a kinde of palme, but much different from the pal- 
metoes that are in the Sommer Hands. 

was 



2 4 Discovery of the Bermudas 

was dyed with certaine knotes of ''Bibenella, though now 
for the most parte with the graine comming of the '^In- 
dian figge. Hereof we made mention where we spake 
of aloes, as also where we spake of silke dyes. It will not 
be amisse now to gather them both into one. The Indian 
figge is so called because in respect of the forme of the 
fruite, and the greatenes of his leaues it resembleth a figg, 
but I will describe it more accuratelie, for when I was 
at Genoway [ = Genoa ?], I saw it at a physitians house, 
where also I first saw the Indian Balme. 

This Indian figg is called by them of Mexico, where 
there is greate store of them, Nuchtlie, and the tree it 
selfe Nopal, but the Indians of Hispaniola call both the 
tree and the fruite Tuna. Some also do account that 
which they call Py thaya to be of the same kinde, because 
in these two things they agree, namelie, in that they 
haue both a verie bright red colour, staining the hands 
and colouring the urine, [so] that it seemes to be blood. 
They both also haue red graines within as a figg, and both 
grow on prickled plants, but they differ in that the 
fruite which they call Pithaya is not crowned, as the 
other which they call Tuna is, but in forme resembleth 
a quince, being of a bloud red colour, and a verie hard 
rinde. The plant therefore that beareth the foresaid 
fruite called Tuna, or Nuchtlie, hath his leaues a foote 

. c. He meanes not cutchenell, which is a flie brought from the Indies withowt 
heads, but litle wormes breeding on the rootes of a plant called Bibenella. 
d. This is that we call the prickled-peare. 

long 




NORWOOD'S DRAWING 
OF THE PRICKLY PEAR 



Discovery of the Bermudas 25 

long and halfe a foote broad, and neare an inch thicke, 
verie greene and full of long stifFe prickles almost of an 
ash colour. 

[16] The best fruite are those which are white, the 
next those which are yellow, in the next place those 
which are of changeable colour. The last and worst sort 
are those which are greene, and anie of these sorts are 
usuallie eaten without feare. There are onlie of these 
two last sorts in the Sommer-Ilands. 

The fruite it selfe is verie like a fi gge (whilst the 
figgs are on the trees), as well in respect of the limmernes ^ 
and softnes of the rinde, as also in forme and shape, 
saue that it is something longer, and hath as it were a 
crowne on the top like medlars. The leaues grow one 
out of another without anie staulke, and out of the sides 
of [the] leaues growes the fruite without stalkes also, and 
without such thornes as are on the leaues. Some tast like 
peares, some like grapes, and haue within them those 
grapes (which as I haue said) they use for the dying of 
silkes. This fruite doth coole, as doth the juice of its 
leaues, which they use for water. The leaues therefore 
(as it is euident) are likened unto figg-tree leaues onlie 
in respect of their greatnes. The fruite it selfe is likened 
to a fig in respect of the thicknes and softnes of the rinde, 
and because of the graines within it, and hence it hath 
beene fitlie called the Indian-figge. Now whether silke 
be dyed of these graines alone, or that some other things 
be used with them, it importes not much, seing we in- 
tend 



2 6 Discovery of the Bermudas 

tend not so much to teach the adjunctsof this or that par- 
ticular, which are subject to alteration and change, but 
rather the things themselues, according to their causes 
and reasons which are unchangeable, for all things by 
the tract of time, and manie things by the diversitie of 
countries, are altered, yet the reason still remaines. As 
if anie thing else should retaine this bright red colour, 
and be also in substance somewhat subtill and conden- 
sate. Then haueing strength and efficacie it shalbe lit 
for the dying of silke or wooll. But if this plant could 
be produced here, it would proue a thing of marvellous 
profit, for they die with this drugge not onlie silke alone, 
but likewise wooll, calling it a crimson or Scarlett die. 

This description of the Indian figge, called, as it 
seemes, by the Indians in some place Tuna, in others 
Nuchtlie, exactlie agreeth with that fruite which in the 
Sommer-Ilands we call the prickled-peare, neither is 
there anie such difference as can make them appeare to 
be of diuers kindes. I haue heard that the like fruite is 
also growing in Virginia. I haue seene of the leaues of 
this tree beeing full of greate prickles hanged round 
about the walls of a storehouse to preserue the corne that 
was therein from rats, which after a moneth or two 
dropping downe haue againe produced other trees by 
the wall side. The leaues are full of juice, cleare and 
clammie, as the whites of eggs. 

[17] Now touching the dying of silke or scarlet with 
this fruite, I haue knowen no triall to be made, but this 

light 



Discovery of the Bermudas 27 

light being given, I doubt not but some will excercise 
their skill that way. Two things are herein requisyte, 
first that it haue its perfect maturitie and ripenes, and 
then that it be used in such manner and with such mate- 
rials as are convenient, whether arsnick, allome, tartar 
alias argoll, the scume of sope, the water of brann, or 
what else, and yet perhaps the diversitie of regions may 
make all frustrate, for I haue found by experience, setting 
the seedes here in England, the plant to degenerate so 
much that itcouldscarce beknowne from athistle. Much 
more might be spoken hereof, which I let passe that I 
may draw to an end. 

Now because (as I haue before sayd) these Hands 
may seeme, as well in the strange manner of their dis- 
coverie, as in respect of their strength and scituation, to 
be ordained and reserved by the providence of God not 
so much for themselues (being small), as for the more 
easie and commodious planting of other parts of this 
New World, and especiallie of Virginia, and because by 
thewisdome and discretion of his Majesties Counsellfor 
that place, it hath beene latelie ordered and foreseene, 
that theSommer-Ilands might haue some necessarieco- 
haerence, and as it were dependance, upon Virginia (so 
that looke how much land anie man doth properlie pos- 
sesse in Sommer Hands he hath at least foure times so 
much in Virginia), the care also and oversight of them 
both being committed to the right honourable the Earle 
of Southampton [(] whose honourable affections and 

endeavours 



2 8 Discovery of the Bermudas 

endeavours as they haue everie way appeared for the good 
of this Common-weahh, so particularlie in the govern- 
ment of these affaires, insomuch that they are on a 
sudden growne to thrice so much strength and prosper- 
itie as formerlie they had), I say for these causes haue- 
ing my selfe spent certaine years in the one place, and 
being conuersant sometimes with such as haue lined in 
the other, I thinke it fitting to expresse my opinion tru- 
lie as I am perswaded of these plantations, and so explain- 
ing it by three or foure arguments to conclude. I say 
therefore the countries being free to be possessed, afford- 
ing things meete for houshold provision and trade, and 
being also healthfull and agreeable to the constitutions 
of our countrimen, all which of the one I know and can 
affirme, and doe understand no lesse of the other. The 
planting of them (besides the benefit of the Adventurers) 
must needs adde much to the strength, prosperitie, and 
glorie of this kingdome, [i8] would prooue a singular 
benefit to the natiue inhabitants of Virginia, and also to 
such our countrimen as should goe over, and in all tend 
to the glorieof God. For first, touching such as goe ouer, 
it is not unknowne that amongst other things wherein 
God hath prospered our nation, this is one, that he hath 
caused us to multiplie and increase exceedinglie, inso- 
much that his blessing pronounced touching the Jewes, 
that their children should say, Esay. 49. 20, The place is 
straight for me^ giue me place that I may dwell, may seeme 
after a sort to be verified and accomplished in us at this 

day. 



Discovery of the Bermudas 29 

day, so that though manie thousands were aspared, the 
land would remaine aboundantlie replenished : which 
being so, if such as lacke meanes here (as manie do) to 
support the charges incident to themselues and their 
families in such sort as were requisy te to go over thither, 
they are forthwith endowed with lands and employ- 
ments, whence through their industrie they may raise 
their estates. And it is certaine there are verie few there 
but they maintaine themselues far better and with lesse 
care and paines then they did or could do here. Againe, if 
they be such as haue meanes to purchase lands there, and 
to transport servants at their owne charge, they haue in 
their lands large pennie-worths, and for their servants 
manie profitable imployments. Secondlie, the benefit 
that should redound to the natiue inhabitants of Vir- 
ginia is verie greate, whilst by this meanes they might 
be reclaimed in time from their rude conditions and sav- 
age kinde of life to more humanitie & knowledge, be- 
ing instructed in arts and occupations, and furnished with 
sundrie instruments so necessarie in humane societie that 
without them we could not well subsist, and finallie be 
reduced to a more orderlie forme of government. But 
cheiflie and in the first place, those sillie creatures sitting 
now in darknes and in the shadow of death might be de- 
liuered from darknes to light, and from the power and 
tyrannie of Sathan unto God by fayth in Christ. Lastlie, 
as it would adde much to the glorie and fame of this 
kingdome, so would it to the strength and prosperitie 

thereof. 



30 Discovery of the Bermudas 

thereof, whilst we might be served from thence with 
sundrie commondities which we now obtaine from 
other places, which exporting and diverting, an infinite 
treasure, and that manie times to the enriching of the 
enemies of our State and religion, as currants, and other 
fruite, oyles, gumes, cotten-wooll, [19] sugar, rich- 
furres,caviarie,andcordage,masts,plancks,boards,pitch, 
tarre, pot-ashes, and sope-ashes, hempe, flax, iron, salt, 
silks, woad, madder, indico, and other druggs for dyes 
and phisicke, &c., for it is not to be doubted but these 
and the like druggs do cost this kingdome yearelie manie 
millions of wealth. Some man will say. Though these 
things or anie of them were brought us from this plan- 
tation, yet would there be little saued to this Common- 
wealth, because they would, and in equitie might ex- 
pect to receiue their price for them. But the difference 
is verie greate. First, because we might haue them from 
thence at lower rat[e]s, the voyage being shorter and 
lesse dangerous then manie. Secondlie, the customes and 
other duties which we now pay in forraine countries 
would there be saued, for were' they as greate as they are 
in those countries, yet would they wholie redound to the 
benefittof his Majestie, andso consequentlietothe good 
of this kingdome. Thirdlie, for as much as those which 
are Aduenturers thither. Hue and haue their estates here 
in England, and condition with such as they send ouer 
at their charge upon their lands to receiue from them the 
rateable moyeties of all such profitts as shalbe receiued 

on 



Discovery of the Bermudas 3 i 

on their sayd lands, it is evident that a greate parte of 
those commodities would be brought in without anie 
charge to this kingdome, whilst there should be neither 
money nor wares exported for them, and so they would 
become as it were the naturall commodities of our coun- 
trie. Moreouer, the planters there are of our owne coun- 
trimen, members of the same Common-wealth with us, 
who may no doubt in short time deserue of the Indians 
so well in the things before mentioned, and succouring 
them in their wars, &c., as may mooue them freelie 
without compulsion or injurie to resigne themselues to 
his Majesties protection and gouernment. And manie 
other benefits are like to arise of this worthie action, 
which might stirre up forwardnes in the prosecution of 
it. But let this suffice to be spoken in this place.' 



A COPPIE OF SO MUCH OF 
MS POREYS LETTER TO THE LORD 

OF SOUTHAMPTON 

AS CONCERNETH HIS RELATION 

OF NEW-ENGLAND 



A Coppie of so much of Mr 
Poreys Letter to the Lord 
of Southampton as con- 
cerneth his Relation of 
New-England 

C 11 1 

[22] A Coppie of so much of M'' Poreys Letter to the 
Lord of Southampton as concerneth his Relation of 
New-England. 

BY whomethis new Plimouth (situated according 
to Captaine Jones ' his computation in 4 1 degrees 
and 48 minutes) is now presentlie inhabited, your 
Lordshipp and the honorable Companie do know better 
then my selfe ; for whome how favourablie Gods pro- 
uidence, without and indeed quite besides anie plott or 
designe of theirs hath wrought, especiallie in the begin- 
ing of their enterprise, is worthie to be observed. For 
whenas your Lordshipp knowes, their voyage was in- 
tended for Virginia, being by letters from Sir Edwine 
Sandis* and M'' Deputie Ferrar^ recommended to Sir 
Yardly,^ then gouernour, that he should giue them the 

best 



36 Pory's Description of Plymouth 

best advise he could for trading in Hudsons river, 
whether it were by contrarietie of winde, or by the 
backwardnes of their maister or pilot, to make (as they 
thought it) too long a journey, they fell short both of 
the one and the other, arriueing first at that statlie har- 
bour called Cape Cod, called by Indians Pawmet, from 
whence in shallop the Pilott (a more forward vnder- 
taker then performer) promised to bring them to be 
seated in a pleasant and fertile place called Anquam,' 
scituate within Cape Anna aboute 40 leagues from 
Plimouth. After some dangerous and almost incureable 
errors and mistakings, he stumbled by accident upon 
the harbour of Plimouth, where after the Planters had 
fayled of their intention, and the Pilot of his, it pleased 
Almightie God (who had better provided for them then 
their owne hearts could imagine) to plant them upon 
the seate of an old towne,^ which divers [years?] before 
had beene abandoned of the Indians. So they both 
quietlie and justlie sate downe without either dispos- 
sessing anie of the natiues, or being resisted by them, 
and without shedding so much as one drop of blood, 
which faslicitie of theirs is confirmed unto them even 
by the voyces of the salvages them selues, who general- 
lie do acknowledge not onlie the seate, but the whole 
segniorie thereto belonging, to be, and do themselues 
disclaime all title from it, so that the right of those 
Planters to it is altogether unquestionable, — [23] a 
favour which since the first discoverie of America God 

hath 












•ive.^ 



C-M-«^K-^ M.»^-.^n^/taf-««^i,^>- Vf-c*»vt*a»i e». «i.t^€>-K4r tuTlOv.- 
ti j,i:^atfh /ftr.i*fnt<k ^ (;-w». 'i^ e*if*v^^;si-t5^ 

r*[\^*'^ c*-y***- '>{y ^Jt ^*<^^t^*i > o»P p€>-»«.6[- fcv-j't lt■^^S- 















FIRST PAGE OF NORWOOD'S COPY 
OF PORY'S LETTER TO THE LORD OF SOUTHAMPTON 



Pory's Description of Plymouth 37 

hath not vouchsafed, so far as ever I could learne, vpon 
anie Christian nations within that Continent, yet can it 
not be denied, but that these of the Sommer Hands are 
blessed with the same priviledge according to the say- 
ing of S*- Paul, If the first fruits be holie, the lumpe is also 
holie; but to leave this priuiledge to them whome it con- 
cernes, and to describe to your Lordshipp the excel- 
lencie of the place, first, the harbour is not onelie pleas- 
ant for aire and prospect, but most sure for shipping both 
small and greate, being land-locked on all sides. The 
towne is seated on the ascent of a hill, which besides 
the pleasure of variable objects entertaining the unsat- 
isfied eye, such is the wholesomenes of the place (as the 
Governor [Bradford] told me) that for the space of one 
whole yeare, of the two wherein they had beene there, 
dyed not one man, woman, or child. ^ This healthfulnes 
is accompanied w^ith much plentie both offish and fo wle 
everie day in the yeare, as I know no place in the world 
that can match it. In March the eeles come forth out 
of places where they lie bedded all winter, into the fresh 
streames, and there [/. e., thence] into the sea, and in their 
passages are taken in pots. In September they runne out 
of the sea into the fresh streames, to bed themselues in 
the ground all winter, and are taken againe in pots as 
they returne homewards. In winter the inhabitants digge 
them up, being bedded in gravell not aboue two or three 
foote deepe, and all the rest of the yeare they may take 
them in pots in the salt water of the bay. They are passing 

sweete. 



38 Pory's Description of Plymouth 

sweete, fat, and wholesome, haueing no taste at all of 
the mudde, and are as greate as ever I saw anie. In Aprill 
& May come up another kinde offish which they call 
herring, or old wiues, in infinite skulls [=schools] into 
a small river runing under the towne, and soe into a 
greate pond or lake of a mile broad where they cast their 
spawne, the water of the sayd river beeing in manic 
places not aboue halfe a foote deepe. [24] Yea, when 
a heape of stones is reared up against them a foote high 
aboue the water, they leape and tumble over and will 
not be beaten backe with cudgels,^ which confirmeth 
not onlie that of Horace, Naturam expellas furca licet ^ 
&c. But that also which was thought a fable of Frier 
Beatus Odericus, namely, that in some parts where he 
had travelled, the fish in the springtime did cast them 
selues out of the sea upon the drie land. The inhabit- 
ants during the sayd two moneths take them up everie 
day in hogseheads, and with those they eate not they 
manure the ground, burying 2 or 3 in each hill of come, 
and may, when they are able, if they see cause, lade 
whole ships with them. At their going up they are very 
fat and savory, but at their comming downe, after they 
haue cast their spawnes, they are shotte, and therefore 
leane and unwholsome. 

Into another river ^ some two miles to the north-east 
of Plymmouth all themoneth of May the greate smelts 
passe up to spawne likewise in troupes innumerable, 
which with a scoupe, or a boule, or a peece of barke, a 

man 



Pory's Description of Plymouth 39 

man may cast up upon the banke. About mid-way come 
into the harbour the manie skull [=school] off [=of] 
basse and blew fish, which they take with skaines 
[ = seines ?] , — some fishes of a foote and a halfe, some of 
two foote, and some of 3 foote long, and with hookes 
those of 4 and 5 foote long. They enter also at flowing 
water [ = flood tide] up into the small creeks, at the 
mouths whereof the inhabitants, spreading their nets, 
haue caught 500 and 700 at a time. These continue 
good May, June, Julie and August. Now as concern- 
ing the blew fish, in delicacie it excelleth all kinde of 
fish that ever I tasted, I except not the salmon of the 
Thames in his prime season, nor anie other fish. We 
called it by a compound name of blacke, white, blew, 
sweete, fat, — the skinne and skale blew ; the flesh next 
under the scale for an inch deepe blacke, and as sweete 
as the marrow of an oxe; the residue of the flesh un- 
derneath purelie white, fat, and of a taste requireing 
noe addition of sauce. [25] By which allureing quali- 
ties it may seeme dangerouslie tending to a sarfeit, but 
we found by experience that haueing satisfied and in a 
manner glutted ourselfes therewith, it proved whole- 
some unto us and most easie of digestion. In the same 
bay lobsters are in season during the 4 moneths, so large, 
so full of meate, and so plentifull in number, as no man 
will beleeue that hath not seene. For a knife of 3 halfe 
pence I bought 10 lobsters that would well haue dined 
40 labouring men; and the least boy in the shippe, 

with 



40 Pory's Description of Plymouth 

with an houres labour, was able to feed the whole com- 
panie with them for two dayes, which, if those of the 
ship that come home do not affirme upon their oathes, 
let me for ever loose [=lose] my credit. Without the 
bay in the ocean sea, they haue all the yeare long in a 
manner goodlie fishing of cod and hake as in other 
parts of Canada. Within 2 miles southward from their 
plantation do begin goodlie ponds and lakes of fresh 
water, continuing well nigh 20 miles into the land, 
some with ilands in them, the water being as cleare as 
christall, yeilding greate varietie of fish. Muskles and 
slammes [=clammes] they haue all the yeare long, 
which being the meanest of Gods blessings here, and 
such as these people fat their hogs with at a low 
water, if ours upon any extremitie did enjoy in the 
South Colonie, they would never complain of famine 
or want, although they wanted bread. Not but that by 
Gods blessing the South Colonie using their industrie 
may in few yeares attaine to that plentie, pleasure, and 
strength as that they shall not need much to envie or 
feare the proudest nations in Europe. Oysters there are 
none, but at Masachusett some 20 miles to the north 
of this place there are such huge ones by salvages re- 
port, as I am loth to report. For ordinarie ones of which 
there be manie, they make to be as broad as a bushell, 
but one among the rest they compared to the greate 
cabbin in the Discoverie, and being sober and well 
advised persons, grew verie angrie when they were 

laughed 



Pory's Description of Plymouth 41 

laughed at or not beleeved ! I would haue had Captaine 
Jones to haue tried out the truth of this report, and 
what was the reason ? If, said I, the oysters be soe greate 
and haue anie pearles in them, then must the pearles 
be answerable in greatnes to the oysters, [26] and prov- 
ing round and orient also, would farre exceed all other 
Jewells in the world ! Yea, what strange and pretious 
things might be found in so rare a creature ! But Cap- 
taine Jones his imploying his pinnace in discoverie, his 
graueing of the ship, his hast away about other occa- 
sions and busines, would not permit him to doe that 
which often since he wished he could haue done. From 
the begining of September till the end of March, their 
bay in a manner is covered with all sorts of water fowle, 
in such sort of swarmes and multitudes as is rather ad- 
mirable then credible. 

The reasons of their continuall plentie for those 7 
moneths in the yeare may be the ' continuall tranquil- 
litie of the place, being guarded on all sides from the 
furie of the stormes, as also the abundance of food they 
finde at low water, the bottome of the bay then appearing 
as a greene meadow, and lastlie the number of frishets* 
runing into the bay, where after their powdred sallets,^ 
their brackish shelfish, and other cates"* they may re- 
fresh and quench their thirst. And therefore this bay is 
such a pond for fowle, as in any mans knowledge of 
our nation that hath seene it, all America hath not the 
like. Thus farre I proceeded and dated my letter at 

Angra, 



42 Pory's Description of Plymouth 

Angra,* Jan: 13,1622. Touching their fruite I will not 
speake of their meaner sort as of raspes,^ cherries, goose- 
berries, strawberries, delicate plumbes and others, but 
they haue commonlie through the countrie 5 several! 
sorts of grapes, some whereof I tasted, being fairer and 
larger then anie I ever saw in the South Colonie, but 
of a muskadell taste, which being transplanted would 
prosper better in the south. But wine vines may com- 
pare with Marthaes Vineyard, which I dare say will fall 
to the south of 40 degrees, and wilbe an earthlie para- 
dise to him that can be mayster of it. Sassafras wanteth 
not all ouer this maine. In this land (as in other parts 
of this maine) they haue plentie of deere and of turkies 
as large and as fat as in anie other place. 

[27] So much of [ = for] the wholsomnes and plen- 
tie of the countrie. Now as concerning the qualitie of 
the people, how happie were it for our people in the 
Southern Colonie, if they were as free from wickednes 
and vice as these are in this place ! And their industrie 
as well appeareth by their building, as by a substantial! 
pallisado about their [? settlement] of 2700 foote in 
compasse, stronger then I haue seene anie in Virginia, 
and lastlie by a blockhouse which they haue erected 
in the highest place of the towne to mount their ordi- 
nance upon, from whence they may commaund all the 
harbour. As touching their correspondencie with the 
Indians, they are freinds with all their neighbours, as 
namelie with those of Conahassit [ = Cohasset] and 

Massachusit 



Pory's Description of Plymouth 43 

Massachusit to the north, with the greate king' of Paka- 
nakie* to the south-west, with those of Pawmet, Nausit,^ 
Capawacke and others to the east and south. And not- 
withstanding that those of the isle Capawacke are mor- 
tall enemies to all other English, ever since Hunf^ most 
wickedlie stole away their people to sell them for slaues, 
yet are they in good tearmes with them of Plimmouth, 
because as they never did wrong to anie Indians, so will 
they put up [with] no injurie at their hands. And though 
they gaue them kinde entertainement, yet stand they 
day and night preciselie upon their guarde. True it is 
that Naragansit, scituate to the west of Pakanakitt, be- 
ing set on either by the French or Flemmings, sent them 
a snakes skinnefullof arrowes,in token of hostilitie and 
defiance. In answer whereof haueing filled the same 
with shott and powder, they sent it backe againe with 
this message, that whensoever 5 he should be welcome, 
and should finde them readie to entertaine him. The 
shot and powder he liked not, nor would meddle with 
it, but caused it to be cast into the river.^ One thing 
which made them to be much respected was the revenge 
which they attempted in the night upon Combotant,' 
the cheife man about the greate king, because they 
were (though falselie) informed, that he had slaine Tis- 
quanto,^ [28] Sir Ferdinando Gorge his Indian, who 
lived as their servant under their protection, interpret- 
ing the injurie done to him as done to themselues. Be- 
sides when Tisquanto was earnestlie required to be sent 

home 



44 Pory's Description of Plymouth 

home by the greate king, they choose [ = chose] rather 
to hazard a falling out with him, then to breake their 
faith and promise with Tisquanto, who had beene sure to 
haue gone to the pot, if they had deliuered him up, which 
fayth and courage of theirs hath made other distracted 
Indians to retire themselues into their protection, of 
whose labour and service they haue made good use, but 
especiallie of Tisquantoes. And since I haue taken occa- 
sion to speake both of amitie and enmitie, giue me leaue 
to note unto your Lordshipp the generall enimie of all, 
both Christians and Indians in Canada, that inhabit to- 
ward the ocean, being as they of New Ply m mouth re- 
late an Indian nation of man-eaters called Monhaccke,^ 
who goe armed against arrowes with jacks [ = coats of 
mail] made of cordage, and they themselues use clubs 
onlie. Of the language of the natiues about Plymmouth 
and Cape Cod I haue collected a small dictionarie, 
wherein I finde manie words agreeing with those of the 
South Colonie, and of the easterne shore of the bay. I 
haue one great designe, namelie to finde out what Sea* 
that is, which the Frenchmen put downe in their cards 
[ = charts] to west in 40 degrees over against the bot- 
tome of the sayd bay, whether or no an inlett of the 
South Sea. It must be done by the grace of God through 
the guidance of the Sasquasahanacks,^ a most barbarous 
nation and supposed to be man-eaters, yet upon this con- 
dition I will adventure my selfe with them by land, if 
I may haue a convenient barke [in which] to keepe 
for my securitie 3 or 4 hostages. 



A COPPIE OF A PARTE 

OF M?^ POREYS LETTER TO THE 

GOVERNOR OF VIRGINIA 



A Coppie of a parte of Mr 
Poreys Letter to the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia 

[29] A Coppie of a parte of M'": Poreys Letter to the 
Governor of Virginia. 

WHEREAS heretofore a vulgar error, namelie 
that fish is not to be had here at all times of 
the yeare, had generallie possessed the minds 
of all men, experience hath now taught us the contra- 
rie, that in some two moneths of the cod, which never 
bites but in the daytime, comes altogether as good a fish 
called a hake, to be caught in the night. The places of 
fishing upon this coast are as universall as the times, for 
it is experimented now by one John Gibbs' (who this 
summer hath passed 5 or 6 times betweene this place and 
New-Plymmouth), that a man cannot cast out a hooke 
at anie ledge at sea in that distance, but he shall draw 
up goodlie fish at pleasure. Upon whose relation divers 
meane to fish the next yeare more toward the south- 
west. And Cape Cod it selfe hath not that name for 
naught, for it is thought that one shallops fishing onelie 

would 



48 Pory's Description of New England 

would suffice the whole plantation of New-Plymmouth 
all the yeare long. To the east and north of this place 
is found as greate plentie as to the south & west. Now 
whether there be anie cod or noe to the south of the 
place (as the Companie desire to be informed), although 
M' Vengham,^ a man of experience in those partes, do 
seeme to doubt, yet a Flemmish^ pilot, who is to con- 
duct Captaine ArgolP his pinnace into Hudsons river, 
putteth downe in his plot, a place some 1 5 leagues to the 
west of Elizabeths Iland'^ which he calleth Cod Hand. 
And by the way that yow may know how stronglie the 
Flemmings make title from 40 to 44 degrees, they call 
Hudson his river Prince Maurice his river ; Cape-Cod 
the Stakes Hooke; Sagadahoc or thereabouts Prince 
Henricks river and the great bay (wherein Port-Roy- 
all taken by Captaine Argoll from the French was 
seated), Graue Williams Bay. And in the same place 
they confine Virginia within the Cape Henrie & Charles, 
as if it had no further extension both north & south. 
Also to the south of Hudsons River they name the coun- 
trie Aquahanacke. Besides that plantation of New 
Plymmouth in 41 degrees and j^ , and that other in 
Massachusett in 42 or thereabouts, there is a third in 
Canada at Damrells Coue [= Damariscove] in 43 and 
45 minutes at the cost of Sir Ferdinando Gorge, con- 
sisting of some 1 3 persons who are to provide fish all 
the yeare with a couple of shallops for the most time- 
lie loading of a ship. 

[30] And 



x 
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P«^*i^iA"^ '**^ *i]^&- 



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n'/it -liilif- t^l'/ 



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FIRST PAGE OF NORWOOD'S COPY 
OF PORY'S LETTER TO THE GOVERNOR OF VIRGINIA 



Pory's Description of New England 49 

[30] Andtokeepethatllandtobefearmed [= farmed] 
out in Sir Ferdinandos name to such as shall there fish, 
and least the French or the salvages should roote them 
out in winter, they haue fortified themselues with a 
strong pallisado of spruce trees of some i o foote high, 
haueing besides their small shott, one peece of ordinance 
and some i o good dogs. Howsoeuer they speed, they 
undertake an hazardous attempt, considering the sal- 
vages haue beene this yeare (as those to the north use 
to be by the French) furnished in exchange of skinnes 
by some unworthie people of our nation with peeces, 
shott, powder, swords, blades, and most deadlie arrow 
heads, and with shallops from the French, which they 
can mannage as well as anie Christian, as also their 
peeces, it being an ordinarie thing with them to hitt a 
bird flying. And how litle they are to be trusted here 
as well as in Virginia, may appeare by the killing latelie 
of the maister of a ship of Plimmouth with 1 8 of his 
companie among the Hands toward the north-east, 
which was the cause that the same ship lost her fishing 
voyage & went emptie home. Now as concerning the 
soyle, it is all along as farre as I could perceiue rockie, 
rough, and uneven, and that as I heare from a litle on 
this side Cape Cod as farre as to New-found-land, be- 
inge all along the sea coast a laberinth of innumerable 
Hands, or broken lands rent in sunder by intricate chan- 
nels, rivers, and armes of the sea. Vpon these rockie 
grounds do grow naturallie firre, spruce, birch, and other 

trees. 



50 Pory's Description of New England 

trees, and in some open places abundance of raspes 
[= raspberries], gooseberries, hurts [= hurtleberries, or 
whortleberries], and such fruite. In other places, hugh 
ranke grasse for the graseing of cattle to make hay with- 
all, as likewise greate plentie of pease, like our English 
pease, growing naturally without anie tilth. Upon these 
rockie places there is passing good soyle, yet culturable 
with how and spade rather then with the plow; yet 
they say that up the river Prinaquie' there is a place of 
even champian countrie without anie rockes, abound- 
ing with varietie of excellent timber, and like at An- 
quam neerer unto Cape Anna, a levell of more beautie 
and largenes. Within an infinitie of rockes may be in- 
tombed abundance of rich minerals, [31] among which 
silver and copper are supposed to be the cheife. Out 
of these rockes do gush out delicate streames of water, 
which together with the temper of the aire maketh this 
place marvellous wholesome in summer, which is the 
cause I haue not knowen one man sicke all the time I 
was there, saue onelie that villaine, which accused yow 
falselie concerning Swabber, and died aboard the Bona= 
nova,* as he had lived, franticke. Yet is the aire too cold 
here for the sommer, but with an easterlie winde sub- 
ject to fogs and mists. The people seeme to be of one 
race with those in Virginia both in respect of their qual- 
ities and language. They are greate lovers of their chil- 
dren and people, and verie revengefull of wrongs offered. 
They make their canowes, their arrowes, their bowes, 

their 



Pory's Description of New England 5 i 

their tobacco-pipes, and other their implements far more 
neate and artificiallie then in those partes. They dresse 
also and painte leather, and make trouses, buskins, shooes 
with farre greater curiositie. Corne they set none in 
their parts toward the north, and that is the cause why 
Indian corne, pease, and such like is the best trucke for 
their skinnes, and then in winter especiallie when hun- 
ger doth most pinch them, which is the season when 
the French do use to trade with them. They haue the 
same names of numbers with them in the south. Acca- 
mus, in the southern language a dogge, they call here 
Aramouse. For malta, noe, they pronounce madda ; for 
matcheray, nought, mathat ; for mitchin, to eate, mit- 
terim; for kijos, the sunne, hijos; and manie other like 
or selfe same words spoken by the rebels of the South 
Colonie, neither is their manner of singing and daun- 
cing much different. Their babes here also they binde 
to a boarde and set them up against a wall, as they do 
here in the south.* Likewise their head they annoynt 
with oyle mixed with vermillion, and are of the same 
haire, eyes, and skinne that those are of. 



NOTES 



^ote0 



I . Another page contains a careful pen and ink drawing of the prickly-pear 
shrub. This illustration shows that our author was an unusually good draughtsman. 

I xvi ^ 

1 . At a later period Norwood busied himself in the religious controversies which 
troubled the plantation, as may be seen in William Prynne's ^ Fresh Discovery 
of some Prodigious New Wandring- Biasing- Stars ^ Firebrands, London, 1645 
(second section), pp. 1 1-28. Norwood wrote his * Detectio ' in England. 

2. P. 9 of MS., as indicated in the complete text. 

C xvii ] 

1 , The MS. here has the word * which,* which for the sake of clearness I omit. 

2. Pp. i3-i4of MS., as indicated. 

C xviii ] 

I. Pp. 29-30 of MS., as indicated in the complete text. 

1. History of Plimoth Plantation, ed. Doyle, pp. 182-5. 

2. Pp. 22-28 of the MS., as indicated in the complete text. 

C xxiii 3 

I. MS., their. 

[T 3 : 

I. The text of the manuscript throughout has been normalized as to punctua- 
tion and capitalization, and any abbreviations have been extended. The first page 
of the manuscript is blank, as also are pages 21 and 32. This section begins on 
page 2. It is a well-known fact that Captain John Smith was never at the Bermu- 
das, and that what he says about them was compiled by him from various sources 

hitherto 



S6 



Notes 



hitherto unrecognized. This is the MS. which Capt. John Smith calls ' a plot of 
Master Richard Norwood Surueior* {Generall Historie, 1624, p. 177). 

I 4 ] 

I. MS., this. 

C 6 ] 

I. Captain John Smith, in his GenerallHistorie, 1624, pp. 185-6, gives the 
following description of this scourge of rats taken almost verbatim from Nor- 
wood's manuscript: 

* But the great God of heauen being angry at somewhat [that] happened in those 
proceedings [at the third Assise in the Gouernment of Captaine Daniel Tuckar] , 
caused such an increase of silly rats, in the space of two yeeres so to abound, be- 
fore they regarded them, that they filled not onely those places where they were 
first landed, but swimming from place to place, spread themselues mto all parts 
of the Countrey, insomuch that there was no Hand but it was pestered with them; 
and some fishes haue beene taken with rats in their bellies, which they caught in 
swimming from He to He: their nests they had almost in euery tree, and in most 
places their burrowes in the ground like conies: they spared not the fruits of the 
plants, or trees, nor the very plants themselues, but ate them vp. When they had 
set their corne, the rats would come by troupes in the night and scratch it out of 
the ground. If by diligent watch any escaped till it came to earing, it should then 
very hardly escape them: and they became noysome euen to the very persons of 
men. They vsed all the diligence they could for the destroying of [i 86] them, 
nourishing cats both wilde and tame, for that purpose; they vsed ratsbane, and 
many times set fire on the woods, that oft ran halfe a mile before it was extinct ; 
euery man was cnioyned to set twelue traps, and some of their owne accord haue 
set neere an hundred, which they euer visited twice or thrice in a night; they also 
trained vp their dogges to hunt them, wherein they became so expert, that a good 
dog in two or three houres would kil forty or fi [f] ty. Many other deuices they 
vsed to destroy them, but could not preuaile, finding them still increasing against 
them: nay they so deuoured the fruits of the earth, that they were destitute of 
bread for a yecre or two; so that when they had it afterwards, they were so wained 
from it, they easily neglected to eat it with their meat. Besides they endeuoured so 
much for the planting Tobacco for present gaine, that they neglected many things 
might more haue preuailed for their good, which caused amongst them much 
weaknesse and mortality, since the beginning of this vermine. 

* At last it pleased God, but by what meanes it is not well knowne, to take them 

away; 



Notes 



SI 



away; in so much that the wilde cats and many dogs which liued on them, were 
famished, and many of them leauing the woods, camedowne to their houses, and 
to such places where they vse to garbish their fish, and became tame. Some haue 
attributed the destruction of them [The printed text of 1624 adds 'the'.] to 
encrease of wild cats, but that is not likely they should be so suddenly encreased 
rather at that time, then foure yeeres before; and the chiefe occasion of this sup- 
position was, because they saw some companies of them leaue the woods, and 
shew themselues for want of food. Others by the coldnesse of winter, which not- 
withstanding is neuer so great there, as with vsin March, except it be in the wind: 
besides the rats wanted not the fethers of young birds and chickins, which they 
duly killed, and Palmeta mosse to build themselues warme nests out of the wind, 
as vsually they did; neither doth it appeare that the cold was so mortall to them, 
seeing they would ordinarily swimme from place to place, and bee very fat euen 
in the midst of winter. It remaineth then, that as God doth sometime? effect his 
will without subordinate and secondary causes, so wee need not doubt, but that 
in the speedy encrease of this vermine; as also by the preseruation of so many of 
them by such weake meanes as they then enioyed, and especially in the so sudden 
remouall of this great annoyance, there was ioyned with and besides the ordinary 
and manifest meanes, a more mediate and secret worke of God.' 

I 8 ] 

I . Captain John Smith's version of this passage ( Generall Historie, p. 180) 
derived from our manuscript reads: 

' The neglect of this diuision was very hardly conceited in England, so that 
Master More grew more and more in dislike with the company; notwithstanding 
he followed the building of these Forts so earnestly, neglecting planting of Come, 
till their store was neere all consumed, whereby they became so feeble and weake, 
some would not, others could not, goe abroad to seeke releefe, but starued in their 
houses, and many that went abroad, through weaknesse were subiect to be sud- 
denly surprized with a disease called the Feauges [j/V], which was neither paine 
nor sicknesse, but as it were the highest degree of weaknesse, depriuing them of 
power and ability from the execution of any bodily exercises, whether it were 
working, walking, or what else: being thus taken, if any presently gaue them food, 
many times they straight recouered, yet some after a little rest would bee able to 
walke, but if they found not present succour, died. 

* About this time or immediately before, came in a company of Rauens, which 
continued amongst them all the time of this mortality and then departed, which 
for any thing knowne, neither before nor since were euer scene or heard of: . . . ' 

I. Capt. 



58 



Notes 



I. Capt. John Smith in his Generall Historie, pp. i8i-z, shows that Capt. 
Tucker succeeded various petty, monthly governors, during whose term of office 
great disorder prevailed. 

[ 12 n 
I . The following passages from Captaine John Smith' s Generall Historie, 1624. 
(pp. 187-9), serve to identify the author of our manuscript as Richard Nor- 
wood, the official surveyor of the Bermudas : 

* The Diuision of the Summer lies into Tribes, by Master 
Richard Norwood, Surueyor. 
' According to the directions of the Councell and Company, as they had deter- 
mined by lot, M. Norwood tooke a plot of the He, and diuided it with as much 
faithfulnes as he could, assigning to euery Aduenturer his share or proportion, as 
namely, to lay out a large proportion, to bee called the generall land, and imployed 
for publike vses, as for the maintenance of the Gouernour, . . . The rest was to be 
diuided into eight parts, each part to be called a tribe, and to haue his denomina- 
tion of some principall person that was Adventurer therein: and accordingly the 
first Tribe to bee Eastward, was then called BedfordsTx^t, . . . the eighth. Sands 
[= Sandy s~\ : in the honours of . . . Sir Edwin Sands. Againe each of those Tribes 
were to bee diuided into fifty parts, called shares; and euery Aduenturer to haue 
his shares in these tribes as was determined, by casting lots in England, the man- 
ner of it appeares by the Map, and more largely by his Booke of the Suruay of the 
Countrey, which is in the Records of the Colony. And then began this which 
was before as you haue heard, but as an vnsetled and confused Chaos, to receiue 
a disposition, forme, and order, and become indeed a Plantation.' 



* Touching the common ground in each Tribe, as also the ouer-plus, you may 
finde that at large in the Booke of Surueyes amongst their Records. 

' Now though the Countrey was small, yet they could not conueniently haue 
beene disposed and well setled, without a true description and a suruey of it; and 
againe, euery man being setled where he might constantly abide, they knew their 
businesse, and fitted their houshold accordingly: then they built no more Cabbens, 
but substantiall houses, they cleered their grounds, and planted not onely such 
things as would yeeld them their fruits in a few moneths, but also such as would 
affoord them profit within a few yeares, so that in a short time the Countrey be- 
gan 



Notes 



59 



gan to aspire, and neerely approach vnto that happbesse and prosperitie, wherein 
now it flourisheth, &c.' 

2 . The MS . here adds the word * which, ' which for the sake of clearness I omit. 

[ '5 2 

1 . Evidently employed in the sense of compass card. 

2. The Dictionary of National Biography says that this map was published in 
1622. It was certainly published in a somewhat altered form in Capt. John 
Smith's General! Historie, 1624. The map there bears the title, * The Summer 
lis.'' In the lower left-hand corner are the following words: * Thes Letters 
A. B. C. shezv the situation of the 3 bridges P the Mount. D. E. F. G. H. I. 
K. L. M. N. O. y' forts how and by whom they wer made the history will shew 
you. The description of y land by M"- [Richard "] Norwood* All contracted into 
this order by Captaine lohn Smith. ^ In 1626 the map was really first published 
in its original form, and is here reproduced. The engraved text on the map shows 
that it was drawn in 1622, — added evidence of the date of our manuscript. 

Mr. Alexander Brown in his Genesis of the United States, vol. 11, p. 958, 
says that Richard Norwood drew this map in 1616, and that it was licensed 
for publication on January 19, 1622, by the Stationers' Company of London. 
It is true, that the entry occurs in the Register of that Company under the date 
Jan. 1 9 [729], 1621/22, but the statement on the map itself shows that it was 
drawn in 1622, not in 161 6. Perhaps the drawing had not been completed 
when the licence was granted. Publication apparently did not occur until 1 626, 
but in the meantime Captain John Smith seems to have seen the map and to have 
published it in a somewhat modified form. The engraving of the complete map 
as drawn by Norwood was executed in Holland, and does not bear Norwood's 
name. However, it can easily be proved to be his work, and about fifty years 
ago Gen. Lefroy ascribed the map to him and had a full-size reproduction of it 
made. One of these facsimiles was presented by him to Harvard University 
Library. 

3. This passage, as it appears in Captain John Smith's Generall Historie, pp. 
169—70, reads as follows: 

* . . . Those Hands lie in the huge maine Ocean, and two hundred leagues from 
any continent, . . . some twenty miles in length, and not past two miles and a 
halfe in breadth, enuironed with Rocks, which to the North-ward, West-ward, 
and South-East, extend further then they haue bin yet well discouered: by reason 
of those Rocks the Country is naturally very strong, for there is but two places, 
& scarce two, vnlesse to them who know them well, where shipping may safely 



6o Notes 

come in, and those now are exceeding well fortified, but within is roome to enter- 
taine a royall Fleet: the Rocks in most places appeare at a low water, neither are 
they much couered at a high, for it ebbs and flowes not past fiue foot; the shore 
for [the] most part is a Rocke, so hardened with the sunne, wind and sea, that it 
is not apt to be worne away with the waues, whose violence is also broke by the 
Rocks before they can come to the shore: it is very vneuen, distributed into hills 
and dales; the mold is of diuers colours, neither clay nor sand, but a meane be- 
tweene; the red which resembleth clay is the worst, the whitest resembling sand 
and the blackest is good, but the browne betwixt them both which they call white, 
because there is mingled with it a white meale is the best: vnder the mould two 
or three foot deep, and sometimes lesse, is a kinde of white hard substance which 
they call the Rocke: the trees vsually fasten their roots in it; neither is it indeed 
rocke or stone, or so hard, though for most part more harder then Chalke; nor so 
white, but pumish-like and spungy, easily receiuing and containing much water. 
In some places Clay is found vnder it, it seemes to be ingendred with raine water, 
draining through the earth, and drawing with it of his substance vnto a certaine 
depth where it congeales; the hardest kinde of it lies vnder the red ground like 
quarries, as it were thicke slates one vpon another, through which the water hath 
his passage, so that in such places there is scarce found any fresh water, for all or 
the most part of the fresh water commeth out of the Sea draining through the sand, 
or that substance called the Rocke, leauing the salt behinde, it becomes fresh: 
sometimes we digged wells of fresh water which we finde in most places, and but 
three or foure paces from the Sea side, some further, the most part of them would 
ebbe and flow as the Sea did, and be leuell or little higher then the superficies of 
the sea, and in some places very strange, darkc and cumbersome Caues. 

* The aire is most commonly cleere, very temperate, moist, with a moderate 
heat, very healthfull and apt for the generation and nourishing of all things, so as 
many things transported from hence yeeld a farre greater increase, and if it be any 
liuing thing it becomes fatter and better; by this meanes the country is so replen- 
ished with Hens and Turkies, within the space of three or foure yeeres, that 
many of them being neglected, forsake the houses and become wilde, and so liue 
in great abundance; the like increase there is in Hogs, tame Conies, and other 
Cattle according to their kindes. There seemes to be a continuall Spring, which 
is the cause some things come not to that maturity and perfection as were requisite; 
and though the trees shed their leaues, yet they are alwaies full of greene; the 
Come is the same they haue in Firginia, and the West-Indies : of this and many 
other things without plowing or much labour, they haue two Haruests cuery 
yeere, for they set about March, which they gather in luly; and againe in August, 

which 



Notes 6 1 

which they reape in December; and little slips of Fig-trees and Vines doe vsually 
beare fruit within the yeere, and sometimes in lesse; ... the winter they haue 
obserues the time with ours, but the longest dales and nights are shorter then ours 
almost by two houres. 

' ... as the Prickell-peare which growes like a shrub by the ground, with broad 
thick leaues, all ouer-armed with long and sharpe dangerous thornes, the fruit be- 
ing in forme not much vnlike a small greene Peare, and on the outside of the same 
colour, but within bloud red, and exceeding full of iuice; with graines not much 
vnlike the Pomgranat, and colouring after its nature. . . .' 



I. MS., then. 

I. MS., Tlying-fish. 






I 20 -2 

1. Governor Butler's work here mentioned is evidently Sloanc MS. 750 now 
in the British Museum. This manuscript was edited by General Sir J. Henry Le- 
froy for the Hakluyt Society in 1882 (vol. lxv) under the title of Tbe History 
of the Bermudas or Somer Islands, wherein its authorship was mistakenly at- 
tributed to Captain John Smith. Captain Butler was apparently Governor of the 
Bermudas from the autumn of 161 9 to about autumn, 1622. 



1. That is, limberness. 
I. MS., They were. 



t 3° 1 



[ 31 3 

I . Upon page 20 of the MS. there is a pen and ink drawing of the prickly- 
pear shrub. Page 2 1 is blank. 

C 35 ] 

1. Capt. Thomas Jones of the * Discovery.* 

2. Sir Edwin Sandys or Sands. 

3 . Mr. Nicolas Farrar. 

4. Sir George Yeardley or Yearley. 

I. Evidently 



62 Notes 

c 36 ■} 

1. Evidently Annisquam. 

2. Patuxet. 

C 37 ^ 

I. Captain John Smith in his Advertisements, London, 1631, pp. 18-9, 
gives the following description of Plymouth Colony in 1623 and 1624, thus con- 
firming the truth of Pory's narrative: 

'[1623.] AT New-Plimoth, having planted there Fields and Gardens, such 
an extraordinary drought insued, all things withered, that they expected no har- 
vest; and having long expected a supply, they heard no newes, but a wracke split 
upon their Coast, they supposed their Ship: thus in the very labyrinth of despaire, 
they solemnly assembled themselves together nine houres in prayer. At their de- 
parture, the parching faire skies all overcast with blacke clouds, and the next morn- 
ing, such a pleasant moderate raine continued fourteene dales, that it was hard to 
say, whether their withered fruits or drooping affections were most revived; not 
long after came two Ships to supply them, with all their Passengers well, except 
one, and he presently recovered; for themselves, for all their wants, there was 
not one sicke person amongst them: the greater Ship they returned fraught with 
commodities. . . . 

* [1624.] In this Plantation [New-Plimoth] there is about an hundred and 
fourescore persons, some Cattell, but many Swine and Poultry: their Towne 
containes two and thirty houses, whereof seven were burnt, with the value of five 
or six hundred pounds in other goods, impailed about halfe a mile, within which 
within a high Mount, a Fort, with a Watch-tower, well built of stone, lome, and 
wood, their Ordnance well mounted, and so healthfull, that of the first Planter* 
not one hath died this three yeares: yet at the first landing at Cape Cod, being an 
hundred passengers, besides twenty they had left behind at Plimoth for want of 
good take heed, thinking to finde all things better than \sic\ I advised them, spent 
six or seven weekes in [19] wandring up and downe in frost and snow, wind 
and raine, among the woods, cricks, and swamps, forty of them died, and three- 
score were left in most miserable estate at New-Plimoth, where their Ship left 
them, and but nine leagues by Sea from where they landed, whose misery and 
variable opinions, for want of experience, occasioned much faction, till necessity 
agreed them. . . .' 

I. Captain 



Notes 63 

I 38 ] 

1 . Captain John Smith in his Genera// Historie, p. 246, has the following 
passage manifestly based on this statement of Pory's: 

*. . . But now experience hath taught them at Netv-Plimouth, that in April! 
there is a fish much like a Herring that comes vp into the small Brookes to spawne, 
and where the water is not knee deepe, they will presse vp through your hands, 
yea though you beat at them with Cudgels, and in such abundance as is incred- 
ible, which they take with that facility they manure their land with them when 
they haue occasion; . . .* 

2. Evidently Smelt River, which runs into Smelt Pond. 

I 41 ] 

1. MS., their. 

2. brooks. 

3. salads. 

4. viands. 

[ 42 :\ 

1. Evidently Angra, a town or city of the Azores. 

2. raspberries. 

n 43 1 

1 . Evidently Massasoyt. 

2 . Otherwise known as Pakanokick, Packanoki, etc. 

3 . Capt. John Smith speaks of * Cape Cod, by which is Pawmet and the He 
Nawset^ ( Genera// Historie, p. 208). Nausit and Capawacke ate islands often 
mentioned by early writers. Thomas Prince in his own annotated copy of Smith's 
Gen. Hist, has written: * Nawsit is near 50 miles from Plimouth by land, the 
but about 16 or 18 right a cross by sea.' Capawacke or Capawuck apparently 
lay southwards from the Shoals of Cape James. 

4. Thomas Hunt is said to have carried away twenty-four of the natives in 
1 6 14. 

5. That is evidently, at any time. 

6. For comparison I give the versions of Smith and Bradford. All three of the 
accounts are different. Smith's version {^Genera// Historie, p. 234) reads: 

• Now you are to vnderstand this [ = these] 37. [colonists] brought nothing, 
but relied wholly on vs to make vs more miserable then before, which the Sachem 

Cauanacus 



64 



Notes 



Cauanacus \= Canonicus^ no sooner vnderstood, but sent to Tusquantum our 
Interpreter, a bundle of new arrowes in a Snakes skinne; Tusquantum being ab- 
sent, the Messenger departed, but when we vnderstood it was a direct chal- 
lenge, we returned the skin full of powder and shot, with an absolute defiance, 
which caused vs [to] finish our fortification with all expedition. . . .* 
Bradford's narrative (ed. Doyle, p. 157) runs as follows: 
* Sone after this ships departure, that great people of the Narigansets in a brau- 
ing maner, sente a messenger vnto them with a bundl[e] of arrows tyed aboutc 
with a great sneak-skine; which their Interpretours tould them, was a threatening, 
& a chaleng; vpon which the Gouernour with the aduice of others, sente them a 
round answere, . . . And by another mesenger sente the sneake skine back with 
bulits in it, but they would not receiue it but sent it back againe. . . .' 

7. Also called Corbitant, Coubatant, etc., by contemporary writers. 

8. Also known as Tusquantum, Squantum, etc. The various spellings of this 
name suggest that the Indians may have made use of a letter ts like the Hebrew 
tsade. 

C 44 ] 

1 . The tribe of Mohawks (Mowhacckes) is evidently intended. 

2. As yet I have not been able to identify this sea with certainty. Probably it 
is Lake Erie. 

3. The * Sasquesahanocks ' are mentioned by Capt. John Smith as living upon 
the banks of a river in Virginia which the English called Bolus. (See Arber's re- 
print of Capt. John Smith's Works, 1884, p. 55.) In Smith's map of Virginia, 
however, this river is named the • Sasqu [e]sahanough,' and the name of the tribe 
is spelled in the same way, while in the right-hand top corner of the map is given 
the picture of an Indian wearing the characteristic dress of these * Gyantlikc peo- 
ple. ' In the so-called Simancas Map of 1 6 1 o, * Sasquasahanock ' appears in place 
of* Sasquesahanough. ' (See Alexander Brown : The Genesis of the United States, 
Boston and New York, 1 890, vol. i, at p. 456 where this map is reproduced.^ 

I 47 1 

I. John Gibbs was master of the * Marmaduke.* 

C 48 1 

1 . Mr. Vengham I have not been able to identify. 

2. MS., Tlemmish. 

3 . Sir Samuel Argall. 

4. An 



Notes 65 



4. An island mentioned also by Captain John Smith. See Dr. E. Arber's re- 
print of Smith's Works, in which the index is very useful. In the so-called Siman- 
cas Map of 16 10, referred to above, the island is named ' Elizabethas He.' 

C 50 ] 

1 . The river Prinaquie I have thus far been unable to identify. 

2. The ♦ Bona Nova' was a well-known vessel of this period, but I have as 
yet come across no further reference to Swabber. 

C s« ] 

I . This statement shows that this letter was evidently written by Pory while 
he was in Virginia. 



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